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Technical Paper

A Four Stroke Camless Engine, Operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Mode with Commercial Gasoline

A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke and camless (Otto) engine was operated in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with commercial gasoline. The valve timing could be adjusted during engine operation, which made it possible to optimize the HCCI engine operation for different speed and load points in the part-load regime of a 5-cylinder 2.4 liter engine. Several tests were made with differing combinations of speed and load conditions, while varying the valve timing and the inlet manifold air pressure. Starting with conventional SI combustion, the negative valve overlap was increased until HCCI combustion was obtained. Then the influences of the equivalence ratio and the exhaust valve opening were investigated. With the engine operating on HCCI combustion, unthrottled and without preheating, the exhaust valve opening, the exhaust valve closing and the intake valve closing were optimized next.
Technical Paper

A LIF-study of OH in the Negative Valve Overlap of a Spark-assisted HCCI Combustion Engine

Future requirements for emission reduction from combustion engines in ground vehicles might be met by using the HCCI combustion concept. In this study, negative valve overlap (NVO) and low lift, short duration, camshaft profiles, were used to initiate HCCI combustion by increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and thus retaining sufficient thermal energy for chemical reactions to occur when a pilot injection was introduced prior to TDC, during the NVO. One of the crucial parameters to control in HCCI combustion is the combustion phasing and one way of doing this is to vary the relative ratio of fuel injected in pilot and main injections. The combustion phasing is also influenced by the total amount of fuel supplied to the engine, the combustion phasing is thus affected when the load is changed. This study focuses on the reactions that occur in the highly diluted environment during the NVO when load and pilot to main ratio are changed.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Influence of Nozzle Orifice Geometries on Fuel Evaporation using Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence

Projected stringent emissions legislation will make tough demands on engine development. For diesel engines, in which combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes, fuel injection plays a major role in the future development of cleaner engines. It is therefore important to study the fundamental features of the fuel injection process. In an engine the fuel is injected at high pressure into a pressurized and hot environment of air, which causes droplet formation and fuel evaporation. The injected fuel then forms a gaseous phase surrounding the liquid phase. The amount of evaporated fuel in relation to the total amount of injected fuel is of importance for engine performance, i.e. ignition delay and mixing rate. In this paper, the fraction of evaporated fuel was determined for sprays, using different orifice diameters ranging from 0.100 mm up to 0.227 mm, with the aid of a high-pressure spray chamber.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Different Combustion Strategies for SI Engines in a Multi-Mode Combustion Engine

Future pressures to reduce the fuel consumption of passenger cars may require the exploitation of alternative combustion strategies for gasoline engines to replace, or use in combination with the conventional stoichiometric spark ignition (SSI) strategy. Possible options include homogeneous lean charge spark ignition (HLCSI), stratified charge spark ignition (SCSI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), all of which are intended to reduce pumping and thermal losses. In the work presented here four different combustion strategies were evaluated using the same engine: SSI, HLCSI, SCSI and HCCI. HLCSI was achieved by early injection and operating the engine lean, close to its stability limits. SCSI was achieved using the spray-guided technique with a centrally placed multi-hole injector and spark-plug. HCCI was achieved using a negative valve overlap to trap hot residuals and thus generate auto-ignition temperatures at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Experiments were performed using a Light-Duty, single-cylinder, research engine in which the emissions, fuel consumption and combustion characteristics of two Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Diesel fuels derived from natural gas and two conventional Diesel fuels (Swedish low sulfur Diesel and European EN 590 Diesel) were compared. Due to their low aromatic contents combustion with the F-T Diesel fuels resulted in lower soot emissions than combustion with the conventional Diesel fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were also significantly lower with F-T fuel combustion. Moreover the F-T fuels tended to yield lower CO emissions than the conventional Diesel fuels. The low emissions from the F-T Diesel fuels, and the potential for producing such fuels from biomass, are powerful reason for future interest and research in this field.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Use of Butanol or Octanol Blends in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Global warming driven by “greenhouse gas” emissions is an increasingly serious concern of both the public and legislators. A potentially potent way to reduce these emissions and conserve fossil fuel resources is to use n-butanol, iso-butanol or octanol (2-ethylhexanol) from renewable sources as alternative fuels in diesel engines. The effects of adding these substances to diesel fuel were therefore tested in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine operated using factory settings. These alcohols have better calorific values, flash points, lubricity, cetane numbers and solubility in diesel than shorter-chain alcohols. However, they have lower cetane numbers than diesel, so either hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) or Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to the diesel-alcohol mixtures to generate blends with the same Cetane Number (CN) as diesel.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Advanced Multiple Injection Strategies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Optical Measurements and CFD-Simulations

In order to meet future emissions legislation for Diesel engines and reduce their CO2 emissions it is necessary to improve diesel combustion by reducing the emissions it generates, while maintaining high efficiency and low fuel consumption. Advanced injection strategies offer possible ways to improve the trade-offs between NOx, PM and fuel consumption. In particular, use of high EGR levels (⥸ 40%) together with multiple injection strategies provides possibilities to reduce both engine-out NOx and soot emissions. Comparisons of optical engine measurements with CFD simulations enable detailed analysis of such combustion concepts. Thus, CFD simulations are important aids to understanding combustion phenomena, but the models used need to be able to model cases with advanced injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics for Partially Premixed and Conventional Combustion of Butanol and Octanol Isomers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

Reducing emissions and improving efficiency are major goals of modern internal combustion engine research. The use of biomass-derived fuels in Diesel engines is an effective way of reducing well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, partially premixed combustion (PPC) makes it possible to achieve very efficient combustion with low emissions of soot and NOx. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using alcohol/Diesel blends or neat alcohols on emissions and thermal efficiency during PPC. Four alcohols were evaluated: n-butanol, isobutanol, n-octanol, and 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols were blended with fossil Diesel fuel to produce mixtures with low cetane numbers (26-36) suitable for PPC. The blends were then tested in a single cylinder light duty (LD) engine. To optimize combustion, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level, lambda, and injection strategy were tuned.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Lab Versus Engine Tests In the Development of a Highly Efficient Ammonia Formation Catalyst for a Passive SCR System

Commercial three way catalysts have limited capacity towards reducing NOx in the presence of excessive oxygen. This prevents lean-burn combustion concepts from meeting legislative emission standards. A solution towards decreasing NOx emissions in the presence of excess air is the use of a passive-SCR system. Under rich conditions ammonia is formed over an ammonia formation catalyst, the ammonia is stored in the SCR and in its turn reacts with the NOx under lean engine conditions. Here up-scaled Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts as well as a commercially Pd-Rh based three-way catalyst (TWC) are evaluated using both engine and further lab-scale tests. The purpose of these tests is to compare the ammonia production for the various catalysts under various lambda values and temperatures by means of engine and lab scale tests. The Pd/Al2O3 showed little sensitivity to temperature both under engine and lab scale experiments.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Long-Chain Alcohol Blends, HVO and Diesel on Spray Characteristics, Ignition and Soot Formation

Spray characteristics of fossil Diesel fuel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and two oxygenated fuel blends were studied to elucidate the combustion process. The fuels were studied in an optically accessible high-pressure/high-temperature chamber under non-combusting (623 K, 4.69 MPa) and combusting (823 K, 6.04 MPa) conditions. The fuel blends contained the long-chain alcohol 2-ethylhexanol (EH), HVO and either 20 vol.% Diesel or 7 vol.% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and were designed to have a Diesel-like cetane number (CN). Injection pressures were set to 120 MPa and 180 MPa and the gas density was held constant at 26 kg/m3. Under non-combusting conditions, shadow imaging revealed the penetration length of the liquid and vapor phase of the spray. Under combusting conditions, the lift-off length and soot volume fraction were measured by simultaneously recording time-resolved two-dimensional laser extinction, flame luminosity and OH* chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Development Experience of a Multi-Cylinder CCVS Engine

A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a multi-cylinder port injected four-valve gasoline engine. This system, dubbed Combustion Control through Vortex Stratification (CCVS), has shown greatly improved fuel consumption at stoichiometric conditions whilst retaining ULEV compatible engine-out NOx and HC emission levels. A production feasible variable air motion system has also been assessed which enables stratification at part load with no loss of performance or refinement at full load.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion with Reduced Nozzle Orifice Diameter

Future emission legislation will require substantial reductions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. The combustion and emission formation in a diesel engine is governed mainly by spray formation and mixing. Important parameters governing these are droplet size, distribution, concentration and injection velocity. Smaller orifices are believed to give smaller droplet size, even with reduced injection pressure, which leads to better fuel atomization, faster evaporation and better mixing. In this paper experiments are performed on a single cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with three nozzles of different orifice diameters (Ø0.227 mm, Ø0.130 mm, Ø0.090 mm). Two loads (low and medium) and three speeds were investigated. The test results confirmed a substantial reduction in HC and soot emissions at lower loads for the small orifices.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from a Parallel Hybrid Combustion Engine and Electric Powertrain

The emissions from a parallel hybrid combustion engine and electric powertrain operated on a modified New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) was investigated in order to determine the relation between emissions and the road and engine load profile. The effect of simulated electric motor assistance during accelerations on emissions was investigated as a means to reduce particulate and gaseous emissions. The time resolved particulate number and size distribution was measured in addition to gaseous emissions. The combustion engine was a downsized, three cylinder spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) turbocharged engine fuelled with gasoline. Electric motor assistance during accelerations was simulated by reduction of the vehicle mass. This reduced engine load during accelerations. Fuel rich engine transients occurred during accelerations. NOx emissions were reduced with electric assistance due to a reduction in engine load.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Methanol and Diesel Direct Injection HD Single Cylinder Engine Tests

Laws concerning emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are needed to satisfy these new requirements and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives can be to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). A suitable candidate is methanol. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the possible advantages of combusting methanol in a heavy duty Diesel engine. Those are, among others, lower particulate emissions and thereby bypassing the NOx-soot trade-off. Because of methanol’s poor auto-ignition properties, Diesel was used as an igniting sources and both fuels were separately direct injected. Therefore, two separate standard common rail Diesel injection systems were used together with a newly designed cylinder head and adapted injection nozzles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Parameters on Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation in Diesel Sprays

A validation study of the numerical model of n-heptane spray combustion based on experimental constant-volume data [1] was done, by comparing auto-ignition delays for different pre - turbulence levels and initial temperatures, flame contours, and soot distributions under Diesel-like conditions. The basic novelty of the methodology developed in [2] - [3] is the implementation of the partially stirred reactor (PaSR) model accounting for detailed chemistry / turbulence interactions. It is based on the assumption that the chemical processes proceed in two successive steps: micro mixing, simulated on a sub - grid scale, is followed by the reaction act. When the all Re number RNG k-ε or LES models are employed, the micro mixing time can be consistently defined giving the combustion model a “well-closed” form incorporated into the KIVA-3V code.
Journal Article

Effects of High Injection Pressure, EGR and Charge Air Pressure on Combustion and Emissions in an HD Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

When increasing EGR from low levels to a level that corresponds to low temperature combustion, soot emissions initially increase due to lower soot oxidation before decreasing to almost zero due to very low soot formation. At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are low, but not sufficiently low to comply with future emission standards and at the EGR level where low temperature combustion occurs CO and HC emissions are too high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities for shifting the so-called soot bump (where soot levels are increased) to higher EGR levels, or to reduce the magnitude of the soot bump using very high injection pressures (up to 240 MPa) while reducing the NOx emissions using EGR. The possibility of reducing the CO and HC emissions at high EGR levels due to the increased mixing caused by higher injection pressure was also investigated and the flame was visualized using an endoscope at chosen EGR values.
Technical Paper

Effects of Variable Inlet Valve Timing and Swirl Ratio on Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

In order to avoid the high CO and HC emissions associated with low temperature when using high levels of EGR, partially premixed combustion is an interesting possibility. One way to achieve this combustion mode is to increase the ignition delay by adjusting the inlet valve closing timing, and thus the effective compression ratio. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possibilities of using late and early inlet valve closure to reduce NOx emissions without increasing emissions of soot or unburned hydrocarbons, or fuel consumption. The effect of increasing the swirl number (from 0.2 to 2.5) was also investigated. The combustion timing (CA50) was kept constant by adjusting the start of injection and the possibilities of optimizing combustion using EGR and high injection pressures were investigated. Furthermore, the airflow was kept constant for a given EGR level.
Technical Paper

Effects of Varying Engine Settings on Combustion Parameters, Emissions, Soot and Temperature Distributions in Low Temperature Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch and Swedish Diesel Fuels

It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Natural Gas-Diesel Dual-Fuel RCCI in a Heavy-Duty Engine

Studies have shown that premixed combustion concepts such as PCCI and RCCI can achieve high efficiencies while maintaining low NOx and soot emissions. The RCCI (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) concept use blending port-injected high-octane fuel with early direct injected high-cetane fuel to control auto-ignition. This paper describes studies on RCCI combustion using CNG and diesel as the high-octane and high-cetane fuels, respectively. The test was conducted on a heavy-duty single cylinder engine. The influence of injection timing and duration of the diesel injections was examined at 9 bar BMEP and1200 rpm. In addition, experiments were conducted using two different compression ratios, (14 and 17) with different loads and engine speeds. Results show both low NOx and almost zero soot emissions can be achieved but at the expense of increasing of unburned hydrocarbon emissions which could potentially be removed by catalytic after-treatment.