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Technical Paper

A Catalytic Oxidation Sensor for the On Board Detection of Misfire and Catalyst Efficiency

This paper describes a novel catalytic oxidation sensor which represents an attempt to realise a practical sensor for on vehicle detection of catalyst efficiency and misfire. Via experimental and modelling approaches, promising characteristics are established, which could mean that an application to the on-vehicle detection of catalyst efficiency and misfire is feasible.
Journal Article

A Comparative Assessment of Electric Propulsion Systems in the 2030 US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

This paper quantifies the potential of electric propulsion systems to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2030 U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The propulsion systems under consideration include gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), fuel-cell hybrid vehicles (FCVs), and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs). The performance and cost of key enabling technologies were extrapolated over a 25-30 year time horizon. These results were integrated with software simulations to model vehicle performance and tank-to-wheel energy consumption. Well-to-wheel energy and GHG emissions of future vehicle technologies were estimated by integrating the vehicle technology evaluation with assessments of different fuel pathways. The results show that, if vehicle size and performance remain constant at present-day levels, these electric propulsion systems can reduce or eliminate the transport sector's reliance on petroleum.
Journal Article

A Detailed Chemistry Multi-cycle Simulation of a Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine Operated with NVO

A previously developed Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate combustion in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection Spark Ignition (SI) engine modified to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO). A portion of the fuel is injected during NVO to increase the cylinder temperature and enable HCCI combustion at a compression ratio of 12:1. The model is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for the open valve portion of the engine cycle. The SRM is used to model in-cylinder mixing, heat transfer and chemistry during the NVO and main combustion. Direct injection is simulated during NVO in order to predict heat release and internal Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) composition and mass. The NOx emissions and simulated pressure profiles match experimental data well, including the cyclic fluctuations.
Journal Article

A Detailed Chemistry Simulation of the SI-HCCI Transition

A Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) has been used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) mode to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modelling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The model is initially calibrated in both modes using steady state data from SI and HCCI operation. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as utilising a pilot injection. Experimental data is presented along with the simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Fast Detailed-Chemistry Modelling Approach for Simulating the SI-HCCI Transition

An established Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode in a four-cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modeling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as using a pilot injection. A proven technique for tabulating the model is used to create look-up tables in both SI and HCCI modes. In HCCI mode several tables are required, including tables for the first NVO, transient valve timing NVO, transient valve timing HCCI and steady valve timing HCCI and NVO.
Technical Paper

A Fast Response Particulate Spectrometer for Combustion Aerosols

Particulate emissions from IC engines associated with transient engine conditions are very important (similar to the legislated gaseous emissions). This is true both during real-world and test cycle driving. This paper describes an instrument for measuring the number of particles, and their spectral weighting, in the 5nm to 1000nm size range, with a time response of 200ms. This is achieved via an electrostatic classification technique, consisting of a diffusion charger followed by a multi-element, constant voltage, classifier. Conversion of the data to other metrics, such as mass, is also described. Results are presented from artificial test aerosols and from light and heavy duty diesel engines on standard test cycles.
Journal Article

A Forward-Looking Stochastic Fleet Assessment Model for Analyzing the Impact of Uncertainties on Light-Duty Vehicles Fuel Use and Emissions

Transport policy research seeks to predict and substantially reduce the future transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption to prevent negative climate change impacts and protect the environment. However, making such predictions is made difficult due to the uncertainties associated with the anticipated developments of the technology and fuel situation in road transportation, which determine the total fuel use and emissions of the future light-duty vehicle fleet. These include uncertainties in the performance of future vehicles, fuels' emissions, availability of alternative fuels, demand, as well as market deployment of new technologies and fuels. This paper develops a methodology that quantifies the impact of uncertainty on the U.S. transport-related fuel use and emissions by introducing a stochastic technology and fleet assessment model that takes detailed technological and demand inputs.
Technical Paper

A Fourier Analysis Based Synthetic Method for In-cylinder Pressure Estimation

The cylinder pressure signal, as an instantaneous and direct measure of the engine operation, contains valuable information for closed loop engine control and offers very useful engine monitoring and control capabilities. The estimation technique for cylinder pressure has been investigated for many years. Based on the Frequency Analysis Method, a synthetic estimation method is proposed in this paper to estimate pressure. Methods that are successful in obtaining a more accurate estimated cylinder pressure over a wider range of crankshaft angle are reported. Quantitative results obtained from application of the method are also given.
Technical Paper

A Linear Catalyst Temperature Sensor for Exhaust Gas Ignition (EGI) and On Board Diagnostics of Misfire and Catalyst Efficiency

Afterburning of a rich exhaust/air mixture ahead of the catalyst has been shown in earlier papers to offer an effective means of achieving catalyst light-off in very short times. Protection of the catalyst from overheating is an important aspect of systems using EGI, and on board diagnostics will be required to check for proper function of EGI. In this paper, some options for these requirements are discussed, using a high temperature linear thermistor.
Technical Paper

A Model for Converting SI Engine Flame Arrival Signals into Flame Contours

A model which converts flame arrival times at a head gasket ionization probe, used in a spark-ignition engine, into flame contours has been developed. The head gasket was manufactured at MIT using printed circuit board techniques. It has eight electrodes symmetrically spaced around the circumference (top of cylinder liner) and it replaces the conventional head gasket. The model is based on engine flame propagation rate data taken from the literature. Data from optical studies of S.I. engine combustion or studies utilizing optical fiber or ionization probe diagnostics were analyzed in terms of the apparent flame speed and the entrainment speed (flame speed relative to the fluid ahead of the flame). This gives a scaling relationship between the flame speed and the mass fraction burned which is generic and independent of the chamber shape.
Technical Paper

A Model for Flame Initiation and Early Development in SI Engine and its Application to Cycle-to-Cycle Variations

This paper uses a model which calculates the flame kernel formation and its early development in spark ignition engines to examine the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The model takes into account the primary physical factors influencing flame development. The spark-generated flame kernel size and temperature required to initialize the computation are completely determined by the breakdown energy and the heat conduction from burned region to unburned region. In order to verify the model, the computation results are compared with high-speed Schlieren photography flame development data from an operating spark-ignition engine; they match remarkably well with each other at all test conditions. For the application of this model to the study of cycle-to-cycle variation of the early stage of combustion, additional input is required.
Technical Paper

A Model for Predicting Residual Gas Fraction in Spark-Ignition Engines

A model for calculating the residual gas fraction in spark ignition engines has been formulated. The model accounts explicitly for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during the valve overlap period. The model has been calibrated with in-cylinder hydrocarbon measurements at different values of intake pressure, engine speed, and valve overlap timings.
Technical Paper

A Novel System for Reducing Turbo-Lag by Injection of Compressed Gas into the Exhaust Manifold

A key challenge in achieving good transient performance of highly boosted engines is the difficulty of accelerating the turbocharger from low air flow conditions (“turbo lag”). Multi-stage turbocharging, electric turbocharger assistance, electric compressors and hybrid powertrains are helpful in the mitigation of this deficit, but these technologies add significant cost and integration effort. Air-assist systems have the potential to be more cost-effective. Injecting compressed air into the intake manifold has received considerable attention, but the performance improvement offered by this concept is severely constrained by the compressor surge limit. The literature describes many schemes for generating the compressed gas, often involving significant mechanical complexity and/or cost. In this paper we demonstrate a novel exhaust assist system in which a reservoir is charged during braking.
Technical Paper

A Novel Technique to Measure Wall Flow in Diesel Particulate Filters

A novel technique for measuring the axial distribution of wall flow in diesel particle filters is described. It is based on measuring the dilution of a tracer gas (introduced at the upstream end of an outlet channel) as it passes along a filter channel, due to the wall flow. A relation is derived between the change in concentration and the flow per unit length of air entering the outlet channel from adjacent inlet channels. Typical data showing the axial variation in the wall flow for clean and loaded filters are presented and discussed. We find qualitatively plausible flow distributions, but note that independent verification of the method is required before the data can confidently be interpreted quantitatively. Some of the potential applications of the technique may include studying the regeneration process and measurement of ash deposition.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of AFR Switch of SI Engines

A novel mechanical method of achieving a rapid switch between stoichiometric and lean conditions for SI engines is explored. Two and three throttle configurations, a switch strategy which employs a standard intake manifold and an assembly of pipes and throttle(s), are investigated numerically by using a one-dimensional engine simulation program based on the method of characteristics. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve rapid AFR switch without a torque jump, i.e. unperceptible to the driver.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark Ignition Engine Under Cold Starting Conditions

The paper presents a computer simulation of flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. Engine cold starting conditions are studied including the effects of in-cylinder mixture back flow into the port. One dimensional air flow and wall fuel film flow models and a two dimensional fuel droplet flow model have been developed using a combination of finite difference approaches. As a result, predictions are obtained that provide detailed picture of the air-fuel mixture properties along the intake port. The model may be of special importance for exhaust gas ignition system simulation as it will provide data concerning mixture formation under conditions of excessive fuel injection during engine start-up. The calculations performed are shown to be phenomenologically correct.
Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

A Rapid Compression Machine Study of the Influence of Charge Temperature on Diesel Combustion

Difficulties in the starting and operation of diesel engines at low temperatures are an important consideration in their design and operation, and in selection of the fuels for their use. Improvements in operation have been achieved primarily through external components of the engine and associated subsystems. A Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) has been modified to operate over a wide range of temperatures (−20°C to 100°C). It is used to isolate the combustion chamber in an environment in which all significant parameters are carefully defined and monitored. The influence of temperature and cetane number on the ignition and combustion processes are analyzed. Examination of the combustion characteristics show that temperature is by far the most influential factor affecting both ignition delay and heat release profiles. Cetane number (ASTM D-613) is not found to be a strong indicator of ignition delay for the conditions investigated.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model of Fuel Transport in Intake Manifolds of SI Engines and Its Application in Transient Conditions

A semi-empirical model of fuel transport in the intake manifold of spark ignition engines, which assumes a fraction of injected fuel deposits onto the port walls and describes the detailed fuel film phenomena, is proposed. The model is applied in the throttle ramp transients during which both the air and the fuel flow change significantly. The predicted air fuel ratio excursions, engine torque etc, are in good agreement with the experimental data. Also simulated is another kind of transience, which has only an air flow jump, i.e. with fuelling rate constant, when the engine jumps between stoichiometric and lean running. The results are again in satisfactory agreement with experiment.
Technical Paper

A Simple Diesel Engine Air-Path Model to Predict the Cylinder Charge During Transients: Strategies for Reducing Transient Emissions Spikes

Simple air-path models for modern (VGT/EGR equipped) diesel engines are in common use, and have been reported in the literature. This paper addresses some of the shortcomings of control-oriented models to allow better prediction of the cylinder charge properties. A fast response CO2 analyzer is used to validate the model by comparing the recorded and predicted CO2 concentrations in both the intake port and exhaust manifold of one of the cylinders. Data showing the recorded NOx emissions and exhaust gas opacity during a step change in engine load illustrate the spikes in both NOx and smoke seen during transient conditions. The predicted cylinder charge properties from the model are examined and compared with the measured NOx and opacity. Together, the emissions data and charge properties paint a consistent picture of the phenomena occurring during the transient. Alternative strategies for the fueling and cylinder charge during these load transients are investigated and discussed.