A Kinematic Analysis of Lap-Belt Submarining for Test Dummies
A kinematic view of the test dummy pelvis “unhooking” from the lap-belt was developed from a series of sled tests. The dynamics of the test resulted in reducing the vertical angle of the lap-belt and rearward rotation of the top of the pelvis. Both of these motions acted to “unhook” the belt from the pelvis. When a “critical” angle between the belt and pelvis was reached, the belt “slipped” from the pelvic spines and directly loaded the abdomen. In these tests, rearward rotation of the pelvis was a predominant mechanism. The study also identified a threshold test severity. At test severities less than the threshold, the dummy did not submarine and at severities greater than the threshold the dummy submarined. The critical pelvis-to-belt slip angle and threshold test severity associated with the pelvis unhooking from the belt are parameters that can enhance assessment of submarining performance beyond a yes/no evaluation.