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Technical Paper

A Methodology to Estimate the Mass of Particulate Matter Retained in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter as Applied to Active Regeneration and On-Board Diagnostics to Detect Filter Failures

2008-04-14
2008-01-0764
A methodology to estimate the mass of particulate retained in a catalyzed particulate filter as a function of measured total pressure drop, volumetric flow rate, exhaust temperature, exhaust gas viscosity and cake and wall permeability applicable to real-time computation is discussed. This methodology is discussed from the view point of using it to indicate when to initiate active regeneration and as an On-Board Diagnostic tool to detect filter failures. Steady-state loading characterization experiments were conducted on a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT® (catalyzed continuously regenerating trap) system. The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Experiments were conducted at 20, 60 and 75% of full engine load (1120 Nm) and rated speed (2100 rpm) to measure the pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency, particulate mass balance, and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-1576
In order to further characterize and optimize the performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems used on heavy-duty diesel engines, an accurately calibrated high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic SCR model and a reduced order estimator for on-board diagnostic (OBD) and control are desirable. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst from a 2010 Cummins ISB engine was experimentally studied in a flow reactor using carefully designed protocols. A 2-site SCR model describing mass transfer and the SCR chemical reaction mechanisms is described in the paper. The model was calibrated to the reactor test data sets collected under temperatures from 200 to 425 °C and SCR space velocities of 60000, 90000, and 120000 hr-1. The model parameters were calibrated using an optimization code to minimize the error between measured and simulated NO, NO₂, N₂O, and NH₃ gas concentration time histories.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Fuel Usage Computer Model for Trucks and Buses

1978-02-01
780630
This paper presents the development of a computer model to simulate fuel usage and emission contributions of the past and future truck and bus population in the United States. The projected future years are beyond 1976 to 1990. The trends in vehicle population growth, yearly miles traveled and ton-miles are also calculated by the model. The model developed is flexible and brings together several technical concepts which reflect recent inputs from industry and government. The formulation of the model is based on a systems approach, in which the several submodels (the "Population," "Mileage," "Fuel Usage," and "Emission") are interrelated. The preliminary quantitative results are discussed to demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the computer model. Increased rates of dieselization are analyzed to determine their effect on reducing fuel consumption and the impact on total emission contributions. The use of the computer model to study an urban area for air quality is discussed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of Reaction Kinetics for a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Based on Engine Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-1054
A high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) model which can predict SCR performance in engine exhaust systems is desirable for optimizing the SCR system, designing on-vehicle control systems and on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst in the exhaust of a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel engine was experimentally studied under both steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state engine tests spanned SCR inlet temperatures from 250 to 400°C with a constant space velocity of 60 khr-1. A 1-D Cu-zeolite model originally developed from reactor data was improved and calibrated to the steady-state engine experimental data. The calibrated model is capable of predicting NO/NO₂ reduction, NH₃ slip, and NH₃ storage associated phenomena.
Technical Paper

Design and Computer Simulation of Microprocessor Controlled Lubricating Oil Cooling System for Truck Diesel Engine

1988-02-01
880488
A microprocessor controlled lubricating oil cooling system of truck diesel engine was designed to minimize the sump oil temperature fluctuation during start-up and nonsteady engine operations. Model reference adaptive control method is utilized in the control system design. The analysis involved in the design of the microprocessor controlled oil cooling system, and the applications of a special vehicle-engine-cooling system (VEC) computer simulation code in the implementation and testing of the model reference adaptive control strategy are described. Using the VEC simulation code, the performance of the microprocessor controlled oil cooling system and the conventionally controlled oil cooling systems were compared for the ATB, temperature disturbances, and cold weather transient tests. An explanation of each test, as well as a review of the results of comparison tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0336
A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Book

Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines

2005-06-27
Emission and fuel economy regulations and standards are compelling manufacturers to build ultra-low emission vehicles. As a result, engineers must develop spark-ignition engines with integrated emission control systems that use reformulated low-sulfur fuel. Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines is a collection of SAE technical papers that covers the fundamentals of gasoline direct injection (DI) engine emissions and fuel economy, design variable effects on HC emissions, and advanced emission control technology and modeling approaches. All papers contained in this book were selected by an accomplished expert as the best in the field; reprinted in their entirety, they present a pathway to integrated emission control systems that meet 2004-2009 EPA standards for light-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Usage by the U. S. Truck and Bus Population and Strategies for Achieving Reductions

1974-02-01
740537
This paper presents an approach to modeling the United States truck and bus population. A detailed model is developed that utilizes domestic factory sales figures combined with a scrappage factor as a building block for the total population. Comparison with historical data for 1958-1970 shows that the model follows trends well for intermediate parameters such as total vehicle miles per year, total fuel consumption, scrappage, etc. Fuel consumption and HC, CO, NO2, CO2 and particulate matter emissions for gasoline and diesel engines are of primary interest. The model details these parameters for the time span 1958-2000 in one-year increments. For HC and CO, truck and bus emissions could equal or exceed automobile emissions in the early 1980s, depending on the degree of control. Three population control strategies are analyzed to determine their effects on reducing fuel consumption or air pollution in later years.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter Estimator for NH3 Storage, NO, NO2 and NH3 Estimation in a SCR

2013-04-08
2013-01-1581
This paper focuses on the development of an Extended Kalman Filter for estimating internal species concentration and storage states of an SCR using NOX and NH₃ sensors. The motivation for this work was twofold. First, knowledge of internal states may be useful for onboard diagnostic strategy development. In particular, significant errors between the outlet NOX or NH₃ sensors, reconstructed from estimated states, and the measured NOX or NH₃ concentrations may aid OBD strategies that attempt to identify particular system failure modes. Second, the EKF described estimates not only stored ammonia but also NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas concentrations within and exiting the SCR. Exploiting knowledge of the individual species concentrations, instead of lumping them together as NOX, can yield improved closed loop urea controller performance in terms of reduced urea consumption and better NOX conversion.
Technical Paper

Mobile Electric Power Technologies for the Army of the Future

1989-09-01
891876
A technology assessment of engines, power source and electrical technologies that can meets the needs of the future U.S. Army (“Army 21”) for cost-effective generator sets is made. Considered in this assessment are: diesel engines; stratified-charge, spark-ignited engines; homogeneous-charge, spark-ignited engines; gas turbine engines; and Stirling engines. Direct energy conversion devices including batteries, fuel cells, thermal-to-electric generators, and nuclear powered systems are also considered. In addition, potential advances in electric alternators and power conditioning, applications of networking, and noise reduction methods are discussed for possible application to the Army environment. Recommendations are made for the potential application of the different technologies for the needs of Army 21.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation and Control System Development in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1324
In this paper, a model-based linear estimator and a non-linear control law for an Fe-zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for heavy duty diesel engine applications is presented. The novel aspect of this work is that the relevant species, NO, NO2 and NH3 are estimated and controlled independently. The ability to target NH3 slip is important not only to minimize urea consumption, but also to reduce this unregulated emission. Being able to discriminate between NO and NO2 is important for two reasons. First, recent Fe-zeolite catalyst studies suggest that NOx reduction is highly favored by the NO 2 based reactions. Second, NO2 is more toxic than NO to both the environment and human health. The estimator and control law are based on a 4-state model of the urea-SCR plant. A linearized version of the model is used for state estimation while the full nonlinear model is used for control design.
Technical Paper

The Application of Analytical Ferrography and Spectroscopy to Detect Normal and Abnormal Diesel Engine Wear

1984-10-01
841371
Analytical ferrography was used as a wear measurement tool while implimenting a procedure to calculate the wear particle generation rate and filter efficiency during laboratory diesel engine testing. The engine testing methodology with quantitative ferrography proved to be a sensitive wear measurement technique in detecting a reduction in the wear particle generation rate for a better anti-wear (API SF/CD) oil from that of a baseline API SD/CD oil. Ferrography and spectroscopy were useful as diagnostic tools for the detection and correction of the unexpected circulation of copper contaminant in the lubrication system. A journal bearing failure was detected with qualitative ferrography and verified with an engine teardown while spectroscopy did not detect the bearing failure.
Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

1984-11-01
841712
The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Design of a 4 Wheel Steer-4 Wheel Hydrostatic Drive All-Terrain Vehicle for REV-74

1975-02-01
750144
Recreational Ecological Vehicle (REV) 74 was an intercollegiate All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) design competition organized by the Milwaukee and Cincinnati Sections of SAE. Students from six colleges built ATV's to compete May 30-June 1, 1974 at Michigan Technological University's Keweenaw Research Center test course. Competing categories of noise level, destructiveness to terrain and a 25 mile race over land and water are discussed from the viewpoint of the technical rules and as to the actual course involved with the competition. Michigan Tech designed and built a 4 wheel steer-4 wheel hydrostatic drive ATV for REV-74. This paper provides a detailed design description of the Michigan Tech vehicle along with a review of several production ATV designs and their specifications. Finally, a report of the results of REV-74 is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Truck Dieselization on Fuel Usage

1981-02-01
810022
The effect of truck dieselization for three levels of diesel penetration into each of the eight classes of trucks is modeled. Diesel and total truck sales, population, mileage and yearly fuel usage data are aggregated by four truck classes representing light, medium, light-heavy and heavy-heavy classes. Four fuel economy scenario's for different technological improvements were studied. Improvement of fuel economy for light and heavy-heavy duty vehicle classes provides significant total fuel savings. Truck dieselization of light and light-heavy duty vehicle classes provides the largest improvement of fuel usage due to the fact that they have large numbers of vehicles and presently have few diesels. Total car and truck fuel usage in the 1980's shows roughly a constant demand with cars decreasing due to improved new fleet fuel economy and trucks increasing due to a larger population with better fuel economy due to dieselization and improved technology.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 2 – Model Validation Using Transient Data

1999-03-01
1999-01-0241
The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of a cooling system for an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. In Part 1 of this research, the code development and verification has been presented. The revised and enhanced VECSS (version 8.1) software is capable of simulating in real-time a Freightliner FLD 120 truck with a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, Allied signal / Garrett Automotive charge air cooler and turbocharger, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch, DDC oil and coolant thermostat. Other cooling system components were run and compared with experimental data provided by Kysor Cooling Systems. The experimental data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Control's (DDEC) Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Hewlett Packard (HP) data acquisition system.
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