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Technical Paper

Advances in Quantitative Analytical Ferrography and the Evaluation of a High Gradient Magnetic Separator for the Study of Diesel Engine Wear

1982-02-01
821194
Several sources of variation in quantitative analytical ferrography are investigated. A standard ferrography analysis procedure is developed. Normalization of ferrographic data to account for the amount of oil used to make the ferrograms is discussed. Procedures to minimize the errors involved with calculating three quantitative ferrography parameters: the area covered by the large particles, AL (%/ml of oil), the area covered by the small particles, AS (%/ml of oil) and Area Under the Curve, AUC, (%-mm/ml of oil) are outlined. Ferrographic data are presented which show that the volume and dilution ratio of the oil sample being analyzed have a major effect on the accuracy of the analysis. Several variables which influence the area covered readings of the particle deposit on a ferrogram are discussed. The accuracy of quantitative analytical ferrography is assessed.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Fuel Usage Computer Model for Trucks and Buses

1978-02-01
780630
This paper presents the development of a computer model to simulate fuel usage and emission contributions of the past and future truck and bus population in the United States. The projected future years are beyond 1976 to 1990. The trends in vehicle population growth, yearly miles traveled and ton-miles are also calculated by the model. The model developed is flexible and brings together several technical concepts which reflect recent inputs from industry and government. The formulation of the model is based on a systems approach, in which the several submodels (the "Population," "Mileage," "Fuel Usage," and "Emission") are interrelated. The preliminary quantitative results are discussed to demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the computer model. Increased rates of dieselization are analyzed to determine their effect on reducing fuel consumption and the impact on total emission contributions. The use of the computer model to study an urban area for air quality is discussed.
Technical Paper

Collection and Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous-Phase Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Modified by Ceramic Particulate Traps

1987-02-01
870254
Protocols for sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous-phase diesel emissions were developed to characterize the chemical and biological effects of using ceramic traps as particulate control devices. A stainless-steel sampler was designed, constructed, and tested with XAD-2 sorbent for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Raw exhaust levels of TPM and SOF and mutagenicity of the SOF and VOC were all reduced when the traps were used. Hydrocarbon mass balances indicated that some hydrocarbons were not collected by the sampling system and that the proportions of collected SOF and VOC were altered by the use of the traps. SOF hydrocarbons appeared to be derived mainly from engine lubricating oil; VOC hydrocarbons were apparently fuel-derived. There was no apparent effect on SOF mutagenicity due to either sampling time or reexposure of particulate to exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Design and Computer Simulation of Microprocessor Controlled Lubricating Oil Cooling System for Truck Diesel Engine

1988-02-01
880488
A microprocessor controlled lubricating oil cooling system of truck diesel engine was designed to minimize the sump oil temperature fluctuation during start-up and nonsteady engine operations. Model reference adaptive control method is utilized in the control system design. The analysis involved in the design of the microprocessor controlled oil cooling system, and the applications of a special vehicle-engine-cooling system (VEC) computer simulation code in the implementation and testing of the model reference adaptive control strategy are described. Using the VEC simulation code, the performance of the microprocessor controlled oil cooling system and the conventionally controlled oil cooling systems were compared for the ATB, temperature disturbances, and cold weather transient tests. An explanation of each test, as well as a review of the results of comparison tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Diesel Powered Truck Cooling System Computer Simulation Program

1982-02-01
821048
A computer simulation program was developed to simulate the thermal responses of an on-highway, heavy duty diesel powered truck in transient operation for evaluation of cooling system performance. Mathematical models of the engine, heat exchangers, lubricating oil system, thermal control sensors (thermostat and shutterstat), auxiliary components, and the cab were formulated and calibrated to laboratory experimental data. The component models were assembled into the vehicle engine cooling system model and used to predict air-to-boil temperatures. The model has the capability to predict real time coolant, oil and cab temperatures using vehicle simulation input data over various routes.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Usage by the U. S. Truck and Bus Population and Strategies for Achieving Reductions

1974-02-01
740537
This paper presents an approach to modeling the United States truck and bus population. A detailed model is developed that utilizes domestic factory sales figures combined with a scrappage factor as a building block for the total population. Comparison with historical data for 1958-1970 shows that the model follows trends well for intermediate parameters such as total vehicle miles per year, total fuel consumption, scrappage, etc. Fuel consumption and HC, CO, NO2, CO2 and particulate matter emissions for gasoline and diesel engines are of primary interest. The model details these parameters for the time span 1958-2000 in one-year increments. For HC and CO, truck and bus emissions could equal or exceed automobile emissions in the early 1980s, depending on the degree of control. Three population control strategies are analyzed to determine their effects on reducing fuel consumption or air pollution in later years.
Technical Paper

The Design of a 4 Wheel Steer-4 Wheel Hydrostatic Drive All-Terrain Vehicle for REV-74

1975-02-01
750144
Recreational Ecological Vehicle (REV) 74 was an intercollegiate All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) design competition organized by the Milwaukee and Cincinnati Sections of SAE. Students from six colleges built ATV's to compete May 30-June 1, 1974 at Michigan Technological University's Keweenaw Research Center test course. Competing categories of noise level, destructiveness to terrain and a 25 mile race over land and water are discussed from the viewpoint of the technical rules and as to the actual course involved with the competition. Michigan Tech designed and built a 4 wheel steer-4 wheel hydrostatic drive ATV for REV-74. This paper provides a detailed design description of the Michigan Tech vehicle along with a review of several production ATV designs and their specifications. Finally, a report of the results of REV-74 is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

1977-02-01
770086
A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Truck Dieselization on Fuel Usage

1981-02-01
810022
The effect of truck dieselization for three levels of diesel penetration into each of the eight classes of trucks is modeled. Diesel and total truck sales, population, mileage and yearly fuel usage data are aggregated by four truck classes representing light, medium, light-heavy and heavy-heavy classes. Four fuel economy scenario's for different technological improvements were studied. Improvement of fuel economy for light and heavy-heavy duty vehicle classes provides significant total fuel savings. Truck dieselization of light and light-heavy duty vehicle classes provides the largest improvement of fuel usage due to the fact that they have large numbers of vehicles and presently have few diesels. Total car and truck fuel usage in the 1980's shows roughly a constant demand with cars decreasing due to improved new fleet fuel economy and trucks increasing due to a larger population with better fuel economy due to dieselization and improved technology.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Engine Wear in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analytical Ferrography

1986-03-01
860378
A study was undertaken to investigate the affect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation in a heavy duty diesel engine using a newly developed methodology that uses analytical ferrography in conjunction with short term tests. Laboratory engine testing was carried out on a Cummins NTC-300 Big Cam II diesel engine at rated speed (1800 RPM) and 75% rated load with EGR rates of 0, 5, and 15% using a SAE 15W40 CD/SF/EO-K oil. Dynamometer engine testing involved collecting oil samples from the engine sump at specified time intervals through each engine test. These oil samples were analyzed using a number of different oil analysis techniques that provide information on the metal wear debris and also on the lubricating oil properties. The results from these oil analysis techniques are the basis of determining the effect of EGR on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation, rather than an actual engine tear down between engine tests.
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