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Technical Paper

Anatomy, Injury Frequency, Biomechanics, and Human Tolerances

The purpose of this literature review was to determine areas of automotive injury information that may add to knowledge of injury type, frequency, severity, and cause. This paper is a review of the literature concentrating on the period between 1965 and present. Literature on car, van, or 1ight truck occupants has been reviewed for injury frequencies, types, and locations. Current experimental biomechanical articles are also included. A search was made for descriptions of injury frequency, restraint effectiveness, and the causes of specific injuries. Medical and engineering journals, texts, and books were reviewed. For convenience, this report is divided into sections by body region with an overview introduction on the anatomy of the specific region.
Journal Article

Crash Recorders in Racing - An Overview

The crash recorder is an important data gathering device in motorsports. Since the introduction of crash recording in Indy Cars in 1993, the data gathered has been critical in developing improvements in race car structures and driver protection systems. This report will examine which sanctioning bodies use recorders, what type of data is gathered, and how that data is used to improve driver's safety in racing.
Technical Paper

Occupant Injury Assessment Criteria

This paper is a brief review of the complex subject of human injury mechanisms and impact tolerance. Automotive accident-related injury patterns are briefly described and the status of knowledge in the biomechanics of trauma of the head, neck, chest, abdomen and extremities is discussed.
Technical Paper

Review of Research on Thoracic Impact Tolerance and Injury Criteria Related to Occupant Protection

The technical and scientific literature dealing with thoracic injury, to or within the rib cage, from blunt loading is reviewed. The history of the development of associated Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards is reviewed from the aspect of its relationship to the history of development of the research information. Field case data from car-to-car and car-to-tree/pole crashes has been examined and summarized. This study suggests that the laboratory research has not adequately covered the principal variables found to exist in actual injury cases. Specifically, more research attention should be given to the shape of the impactor, to the loading location and direction, and to injuries in the contusion and/or laceration family. Correspondingly, the accident investigation process needs to be more sensitive to occupant/vehicle-interior interaction variables so that laboratory research can be properly guided.
Journal Article

Stock Car Racing Driver Restraint – Development and Implementation of Seat Performance Specification

Over the last decade large safety improvements have been made in crash protection for stock car racing drivers. It has been well established that in side and rear impacts the driver seat provides the primary source for occupant retention and restraint. With the implementation of NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) newest generation of stock car, the Car of Tomorrow (COT), into the racing schedule, the opportunity to develop and implement a universal stock car driver seat performance specification was accomplished. This paper describes the development of the Seat Performance Specification including the goals of the specification, the methodology used to develop it, a census of the existing driver seat population used in on-track competition, review of developmental dynamic specification sled tests and quasi-static tests as well as summation of the Seat Performance Specification requirements.