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Technical Paper

A Comparison of a Semi-Active Inerter and a Semi-Active Suspension

Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years, especially in vehicle, train, and building suspension systems. The performance of a passive inerter and a semi-active inerter was analyzed and compared with each other and it showed that the semi-active inerter has much better performance than the passive inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter car model in this paper. The adaptation of dimensionless parameters was considered for a semi-active suspension and the semi-active inerters. The performance of the semi-active inerter suspensions with different layouts was compared with a semi-active suspension with a conventional parallel spring-damper arrangement. It shows a semi-active suspension, with more simple configuration and lower cost, has similar or better compromise between ride and handling than a semi-active inerter with the Hybrid control.
Journal Article

A Model for Combined Tire Cornering and Braking Forces with Anisotropic Tread and Carcass Stiffness

The objective of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of tire model combined tire cornering and braking forces with anisotropic tread and carcass stiffness. The difference of tire longitudinal slip stiffness and cornering stiffness will arouse that the direction of tire resultant shear stress in adhesion region is not the same as that in sliding region. Then the direction of total friction force in the whole tire-road contact patch will change under different combined cornering/braking situations. Generally speaking, there is a basic premise: “the direction of resultant shear stress in sliding region will be the same as that in adhesion region” in the existing tire models, in which the anisotropy of tread and carcass stiffness is neglected. Therefore, these models don't work well when the tire tread and carcass stiffness has a strong anisotropy.
Technical Paper

A Model of Tire Enveloping Properties and Its Application on Modelling of Automobile Vibration Systems

A tire enveloping model is described by a “four-ports network” system. A flexible roller contact (FRC) model is proposed, in which both tire geometric filtering effect and tire flexible filtering effect are taken into account. Furthermore, partial loss of contact and the variation of contact length are also considered effectively in this model. In the modelling of automobile vibration systems, because of the influences of tire enveloping properties, the road input could not be original road profile. So an effective road input is proposed which is filtered by the tire. Under different obstacles, tire loads and inflation pressures, the simulations of the effective road input are carried out based on the FRC model. The simulation results show that FRC model can describe tire enveloping properties more effectively than rigid roller contact (RRC) model.
Technical Paper

A Non-steady and Non-linear Tire Model Under Large Lateral Slip Condition

The objective of this study is to develop a non-steady & non-linear tire model for vehicle dynamic simulation and control for extreme lateral slip condition. This model is provided in a semi-analytical form based on the theoretical non-steady state model, presented at 2nd IAVSD Tyre Conference, Feb. 1997[6]. The tire model is based on a quasi-steady state concept, which generates the dynamic forces and moment according to the dynamic effective slip ratio cooperating with the Unified Semi-Empirical Tire Model for Steady State. Satisfying the theoretical boundary conditions at two sides (lowest & highest) in frequency domain, the tire model is capable of describing the transient force & moment characteristics of tires in higher frequency range, Comparing with the “Linear Approximation” model, presented at 4th AVEC Conference, Sept. 1998[4].
Technical Paper

A Sliding Mode Observer for Vehicle Slip Angle and Tire Force Estimation

In this paper, a sliding mode observer for estimating vehicle slip angle and tire forces is developed. Firstly, the sliding mode observer design approach is presented. A system damping is included in the sliding mode observer to speed the observer convergence and to decrease the observer chattering. Secondly, the sliding mode observer for vehicle states is developed based on a 7 DOF embedded vehicle model with a nonlinear tire model ‘UniTire’. In addition, since the tire lateral stiffness is sensitive to the vertical load, the load transfers are considered in the embedded model with a set of algebraic equations. Finally, a simulation evaluation of the proposed sliding mode observer is conducted on a validated 14 DOF vehicle model. The simulation results show the model outputs closely match the estimations by the proposed sliding mode observer.
Technical Paper

A Study of Tire Lag Property

Tire lag property is a basic property of tire dynamics, and it has significant influence on the performance of vehicle dynamics. In distance domain, the side force and moments produced by a massless tire are basically displacement or path frequency dependent, rather than time dependent. In the paper, on the basis of the stretched-string model, the first-order filtering of deflection for the front point of the contact print and the first-order filtering of side force have been introduced. Tire system can be regarded as a first-order linear system under small slip angle. The force response of tire has the characteristics of the responses of first-order linear system under small angle. The relaxation length is an important parameter in studying tire lag property. It decreases with increasing slip angle. It plays an important role in the study of tire transient properties.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Model of Non-Steady State Tire Cornering Properties and its Experimental Validation

Based on the tire cornering properties in steady state condition, a theoretical model of non-steady state tire cornering properties (NSSTCP) with small lateral inputs is presented. The outputs of the model are lateral force and aligning moment, while the inputs are yaw angle and lateral displacement (or turn slip and slip angle). The deformation characteristics of contact patch are analyzed in non-steady state condition. The flexibility of tread and that of carcass are both taken into account. The deformation of carcass is assumed to compose of translating part, bending part and twisting part. The tests of NSSTCP including pure yaw motion and pure lateral motion are realized with step inputs of yaw angle and slip angle respectively and test data is then transformed into frequency domain. The model is validated through comparing the computational results with test frequency response.
Technical Paper

A Unified Semi-Empirical Tire Model with HigherAccuracy and Less Parameters

A unified tire model with non-isotropy of friction and arbitrary contact pressure distribution is presented as a foundation to study the key features of a reasonable expression of tire shear force and alignment torque under combined slip conditions. The effects of contact pressure distribution on tire mechanical characteristics are analyzed. A unified semi-empirical tire model with convenience in dynamics simulation is recommended. For determining the model parameters, a series of simple expressions that satisfy the boundary conditions are proposed and a new global fitting method for tire data processing is employed. Based on the improved semi empirical model, the USPA software is developed. This software reduces the modeling time from the tire data to a practical tire model and allows various tire characteristics analyses. Some experimental validations are shown.
Journal Article

An Accurate Modeling for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wheel Motor Including Iron Loss

For high torque permanent magnet wheel motor, this paper describes an experimental research method to optimize and identify the motor parameters based on the results of offline calculation. In order to improve the accuracy of motor parameters identification, the motor model considering the affect of iron loss was established, and the motor parameters were identified using genetic algorithm (GA). Based on this, parameters validation experiment was performed. The results show that: parameters obtained by this method can be used to describe the steady-state and transient-state response of permanent magnet synchronous motors accurately.
Technical Paper

An Empirical Tire Model for Non-Steady State Side Slip Properties

In this paper, on the basis of the extant semi-empirical tire models of non-steady state with pure yaw angle input and pure side slip angle input, two empirical tire models of non-steady state side slip properties are established, one is pure yaw angle input, the other is pure side slip angle input, and both of them have been verified by test data. These two models can be used to approximately express tire force within low frequency. They have their own advantages, and make up for the disadvantages of existing tire models. They provide more choice for the simulation of vehicle dynamics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Automotive Handling Based on Tire Cornering Properties in Non-Steady State Conditions

Non-steady state (NSS) tire cornering properties show obvious differences from steady state (SS) tire cornering properties. A two-DOF automobile model with steer angle as an input is established based on the known NSS tire model considering complex carcass deformation. The tire model can certainly be applied to modelling of a multi-DOF automobile system. The frequency responses of lateral acceleration and yaw rate are then derived. An evaluation index, amplitude-frequency characteristic of relative error (AFCRE), is used to analyze the influences of NSS front wheels (FW) and/or rear wheels (RW) on automotive handling. The influences of NSS FW are much greater than those of NSS RW only on automotive handling. The established automobile model can also be applied to other similar studies of vehicle dynamics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Non-Steady State Tire Cornering Properties Based on String-Concept Deformation and Geometric Relationship of Contact Patch

Vehicle handling and stability performances are greatly determined by non-steady state (NSS) tire cornering properties. Analytical derivation of NSS tire cornering models are presented in this paper based on Pacejka's string-concept assumption, in which carcass is assumed to be a stretched string with lateral deformation and lateral relaxation. The lateral inputs of the models are either displacement-based (lateral displacement and yaw angle) or slip-based (slip angle and turn slip). The transient deformations in spatial domain in both longitudinal and lateral directions are obtained directly from geometric relationship of contact patch. The additional self-aligning moment due to longitudinal deformation of contact patch after effect of tire width is considered is also achieved according to geometric relationship of contact patch in longitudinal direction and two transient geometric conditions of contact point.
Technical Paper

Development of Leaf Spring Kinematical Model and Its Applications in Improvement of Truck Braking and Steering Analysis

This paper presents a general kinematical model for all variety of leaf springs, including traditional laminated, asymmetrical, and tapered leaf springs, to calculate the longitudinal and winding deformations of axles during bouncing, braking and traction, which may introduce additional steering effects or variations of roll-steer property of a vehicle. Some experiments were introduced to verify the model. Accordingly, braking performance of a light truck has been improved.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research on the Pressure Following Control of Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

Pressure following control is the basic function of Electro-Hydraulic Braking system (EHB), which is also the key technology of stability control system and regenerative braking system for hybrid and electric vehicles. Experimental research is an important method for the control and application of EHB. This paper describes a method to test and control the EHB system through experiment on the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench and wheel motor electric vehicle. First, the HIL test bench was established, in which the EHB was tested, including the characteristics of solenoid valves and motor. Then the wheel cylinder pressure was controlled to follow the specific signal input and the master cylinder pressure. Based on this, EHB and the pressure following control method were applied to the wheel motor electric vehicle. The results show that the braking pressure can follow the driver's braking intention to realize the conventional braking function of electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Property Characterization of a Self-Damped Pneumatic Suspension System

This study investigates the fundamental stiffness and damping properties of a self-damped pneumatic suspension system, based on both the experimental and analytical analyses. The pneumatic suspension system consists of a pneumatic cylinder and an accumulator that are connected by an orifice, where damping is realized by the gas flow resistance through the orifice. The nonlinear suspension system model is derived and also linearized for facilitating the properties characterization. An experimental setup is also developed for validating both the formulated nonlinear and linearized models. The comparisons between the measured data and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the models under the operating conditions considered. Two suspension property measures, namely equivalent stiffness coefficient and loss factor, are further formulated.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Inflation Pressure into UniTire Model for Pure Cornering

This paper focuses on the modeling process of incorporating inflation pressure into the UniTire model for pure cornering. Via observing and manipulating the tire experimental data, the effects of inflation pressure on the tire cornering property are analyzed in detail, including the impacts on cornering stiffness, the peak friction coefficient, the curvature of transition region and the pneumatic trail. And the brief mechanism explanations are also given for some of these impacts. The results show that some effects of inflation pressure are similar to that of vertical load on the non-dimensional tire cornering property, and there are strong interactive effects between the two operating conditions. Therefore, in order to obtain concise expressions, the inflation pressure is incorporated into the UniTire tire model by analogy with the expressions for vertical load, and the interactive effects are also taken into account.
Technical Paper

Influences of Non-Steady State Tire Cornering Properties on Automobile Shimmy

One of the most essential factors causing automobile and aircraft shimmy is energy import from road to tires due to tire hysteresis characteristic. The magnitudes and direction of the energy import are close to frequency responses of tire cornering properties (TCP), which can be calculated directly according to the presented non-steady state TCP theoretical model. Selfexcited shimmy is the main type of wheel shimmy and behaves as negative equivalent damping characteristic of the tire-road vibration subsystem. The values of energy import or equivalent damping determine the tendency of wheel shimmy. Tire structural parameters have certain effects on frequency response of TCP and thereby result in influences on wheel shimmy. Based on the tire model, some valid ways to decrease shimmy tendency are concluded through proper variations of carcass stiffness, tire-width, kingpin caster, tire pneumatic trail, tire cornering stiffness and so on.
Technical Paper

Key Items in Tire Non-Steady State Test

In the paper, the Flat Plank Tire Tester of Changchun Automobile Institute is introduced. This paper, according to practical experiences, generalizes some issues in the tire's non-steady state test. In the non-steady state test, it must be assured that the footprint centerline of tire coincides with that of slid platform, which guarantees no sliding motion between tire and slid platform during the movement. Due to tire taper effect and inhomogeneous tire material, when its side slip angle is zero, side force and aligning torque are not zeros, but have initial values. Here two approaches are discussed to eliminate the side force and aligning torque. Besides, other factors in the test are put forward for discussion. Eliminating the interference can obviously improve the test accuracy. This paper also provides test curves of both pure side slip angle input and pure yaw angle input.
Journal Article

Modeling Combined Braking and Cornering Forces Based on Pure Slip Measurements

A novel predictable tire model has been proposed for combined braking and cornering forces, which is based on only a few pure baking and pure cornering tests. It avoids elaborate testing of all kinds of combinations of braking and side forces, which are always expensive and time consuming. It is especially important for truck or other large size tires due to the capability constraints of tire testing facilities for combined shear forces tests. In this paper, the predictive model is based on the concept of slip circle and state stiffness method. The slip circle concept has been used in the COMBINATOR model to obtain the magnitude of the resultant force under combined slip conditions; however the direction assumption used in the COMBINATOR is not suitable for anisotropic tire slip stiffness.
Journal Article

Physical Modeling of Shock Absorber Using Large Deflection Theory

In this paper, a shock absorber physical model is developed. Firstly, a rebound valve model which is based on its structure parameters is built through using the large deflection theory. The von Karman equations are introduced to discover the physical relationships between the load and the deflection of valve discs. An analytical solution of the von Karman equations is then deducted via perturbation method. Secondly, the flow equations and the pressure equations of the shock absorber operating are investigated. The relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop of rebound valve is analyzed based on the analytical solution of valve discs deflection. Thirdly, an inter-iterative process of flow rate and pressure drop is employed in order to adequately consider the influence of fluid flow on damping force. Finally, the physical model is validated by comparing the experimental data with the simulation output.