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Technical Paper

A Novel Closed Loop Control based on Ionization Current in Combustion Cycle at Cold Start in a GDI Engine

As the invalidation of the oxygen sensor in the initial cycles at cold start, the engine can not operate based on the closed loop control based on oxygen sensor. And it may result in the misfire events and higher hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during this period. To solve this problem, a novel closed loop control based on ionization current in combustion cycle is proposed. The in-cylinder combustion quality is monitored by means of the ion current detection technique; meanwhile, if the misfire event is detected in the combustion cycle, the spark re-ignition is made in the current combustion cycle. In addition, to optimize the combustion and reduce HC emissions during cold start, the fuel injection quantity and ignition timing in the next cycle are adjusted based on the current ion current signal.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crevice HC Mechanism Based on the Transient HC Test Data and the Double Zone Combustion Model

The effectiveness of after-treatment systems depends on the exhaust gas temperature, which is low during cold-start. As a result, Euro III, Euro IV and FTP75 require that the emissions tests include exhaust from the beginning of cold start. It is proved that 50%∼80% of HC and CO emissions are emitted during the cold start and the amount of unburned fuel from the crevices during starting is much higher than that under warmed engine conditions. The piston crevices is the most part of combustion chamber crevices, and results of mathematical simulations show that the piston crevice contribution to HC emissions is expected to increase during cold engine operation. Based on the transient HC test data and the double zone combustion model, this paper presents the study of the crevice HC Mechanism of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle.
Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of GDI Engine for HEV at Quick Start

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive power-plants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), the transients of quick starts are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which challenge the optimization of combustion and emissions. In this study, test bench had been set up to investigate the GDI engine performances for ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) HEVs during start up process. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing and ignition timing can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulate Emissions Fueled with LPG and Gasoline in a Small SI Engine

This paper presents experimental studies of particulate emissions in a small SI engine fueled with LPG and gasoline fuels. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc EFI engine with gasoline fuel is used as the baseline engine. Characteristics of the particulate emissions of the two fuels are compared. Test results show that: there are great quantities of particulate emissions for both fuels, but the total numbers of particulate emissions for the two fuels are generally in the same level. The distribution of the particulate sizes is in bimodal type for the gasoline, but for the LPG its first peak is not markedly in some conditions. The particulate sizes of the second peak for the two fuels appear at about the same size. At middle loads and 3000r/min, the particulate emissions for both of the two fuels are the greatest.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start

The First Firing Cycle (FFC) is very important at cold-start. Misfiring of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. This paper presents an investigation of characteristics of transient NO emissions in a small LPG SI engine with electronic gaseous injection system. To determine the optimal excess air coefficient ( λ=[A/F]/[A/F]stoic) of the first firing cycle, the emission of instantaneous NO was proposed as a useful criterion to judge if the combustion is occurred or not. A fast response NO detector- Cambustion fNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence's (CLD) method, has been employed to measure continuous, transient emissions of NO during the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure, instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine and engine-out HC emissions were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Compatibility of Biodiesels and Their Blends with Typical Rubbers and Copperish Metals

The swelling of ‘O’ rings of 3 typical rubbers (NBR, FKM, EPDM) and the corrosion of 2 typical copperish metal pieces (Copper, Brass) were investigated. The fuel samples included 14 kinds of biodiesels, 1 kind of diesel, and 4 kinds of blends respectively for 2 kinds of biodiesels. The changes in mass and size of ‘O’ rings were measured with an electronic balance and a vernier caliper. The surface corrosion of copperish metals was recorded with photos. It was found that the swelling of NBR in pure biodiesels were generally larger than those in diesel. The mass and size of FKM almost did not change in both pure biodiesels and diesel. The swelling of EPDM became less in pure biodiesels than that in diesel. When the blend ratios of biodiesels were less than 10%, the change rates in mass, inner diameter and section diameter of NBR, FKM and EPDM were similar between blended fuels and diesel.
Technical Paper

Cycle Resolved Combustion and Pre-Ignition Diagnostic Employing Ion Current in a PFI Boosted SI Engine

An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations of Argon Power Cycle Engine with Fuel of Hydrogen

The work of this paper aimed at investigating the cyclic variations of argon power cycle engine with fuel of hydrogen at lean burn operating conditions. The engine had been modified based on a 0.402 L, single-cylinder diesel engine into spark ignition engine with a port fuel injection system. The influencing factors on the cyclic variations, such as ignition timing, engine speed and compression ratio, were tested in this study. In all tests, the throttle opened at 0%, and the excess oxygen coefficient was maintained at 2.3. The results showed that as the ignition timing retards, CoVPmax and CoV(dp/dφ)max of argon power cycle engine increased, while CoVIMEP decreased firstly and increased afterward. And there is an ignition timing to make the lowest CoVIMEP, which is not consistent with MBT.
Technical Paper

Development of a Gas-Phase LPG Injection System for a Small SI Engine

This paper presents the development of an electronic control LPG gas injection system and its application in a small SI engine. The tests results show that the developed LPG gas injection system can meet the needs for the goal of high engine power output and low exhaust emissions based on the engine bench tests. With the LPG electronic gas injection system, the air-fuel ratio can be optimized based on the requirements and CO and NOx emission levels are decreased significantly compared with the LPG mechanical mixer fuel supply system, based on the same HC emission levels. With the new gas phase LPG electronic control injection system, the HC emission level is controlled below the 300 ppm under most engine conditions and under 200 ppm when the engine speed is over 3000 r/min. The NOx emission level is under 2600 ppm in the whole range of engine operation conditions and is decreased by 2000 ppm compared with the LPG mechanical mixer system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Direct Water Injection Timing on Common Rail Diesel Engine Combustion Process and Efficiency Enhancement

The present work aims at optimizing diesel engine combustion efficiency with optimized water injection strategy. The engine had been modified based on a two-cylinder mechanical pump diesel engine into common rail diesel engine with capability of direct water injection. The direct water injection system was designed and manufactured independently. An air-fluid booster was utilized to establish the water injection pressure up to 40MPa. Customized diesel injector was selected to be used as water injector in this study. Water injection strategy was optimized in detail with injection timing around TDC which ranges from 12°CA BTDC to -5°CA BTDC under 10 bar IMEP. The engine efficiency can be improved under selected water injection strategy due to the increment of work fluid in the combustion chamber. Moreover, the nitric oxides emissions show decrement around 10%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Macroscopic Behavior of Diesel Spray in the Near-Nozzle Field

In this study, the orifice inlet rounding radii of four diesel nozzles with different hydro erosive grinding time were measured based on the x-ray CT scan technology provided by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), and a wide parametrical study of the spray macroscopic behavior in the first 18 mm from the nozzle tip have been carried out with high speed camera. And then the influence of orifice inlet rounding radius on the spray behavior in the near-nozzle field was thoroughly investigated. The investigation results show that: the mean values of orifice inlet rounding radii of different nozzles are measured to be on the order of 21.5-56.8 μm. Although the spray tip penetrations of different nozzles tend to increase with the hydro erosive grinding time through statistical analyzing method, the variations of penetration from nozzles are less than 15% according to different hydro erosive grinding timing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Crevice on Transient HC Emissions of First Firing Cycle at Cold Start on LPG SI Engine

By changing the top-land radial clearance, this paper presents the effect of the piston crevice on the transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure and instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. The results show that increasing 50% crevice volume leads to 25% increase of HC emissions in the lean region and 18% increase of HC emissions in the rich region, however, the 50% increase of crevice volume contributes to 32% decease of HC emissions in the stable combustion region. For LPG SI engine, the HC emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start are relatively low in a wide range of the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stratification on Ion Distribution in HCCI Combustion Using 3D-CFD with Detailed Chemistry

Ion current sensing, which usually employs a spark plug as its sensor to obtain feedback signal from different types of combustion in SI engines, may be applied to HCCI combustion sensing instead of a prohibitively expensive piezoelectric pressure transducer. However, studies showed that the ion current detected by a spark plug sensor is a localized signal within the vicinity of the sensor's electrode gap, being affected by conditions around it. To find out better and feasible ion probe positions, a 3D-CFD model with a detailed surrogate mechanism containing 1423 species and 6106 reactions was employed to study the effect of stratification on ion distribution in HCCI combustion. The simulation results indicate that the monitor probe 1, 8 and 9 are more stable and reliable than the others. IONmax and dIONmax are more accurate to estimate CA50 and dQmax respectively.
Technical Paper

Effects of Intake Valve Closing Timing on Gasoline Engine Performance and Emissions

This paper presents a study of the influence of intake valve closing (IVC) timing on the performance of the high-speed spark ignition (SI) engine, such as the output of torque and power, fuel consumption and emissions. An electrically controlled Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system based on the variable working position belt extender was developed and its pro-type was successfully set up in a 5-valve, double overhead cam (DOHC) SI engine. Test results showed that the IVC timing plays an important role in increasing the power output, decreasing the fuel consumption and CO and HC emissions under both high- and low-speed conditions as compared to the fixed IVC timing. The control of intake valve closing timing is a simple and effective means to improve engine's performance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Additives on Auto-Ignition under a Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

Pre-ignition may lead to an extreme knock (super-knock or mega-knock) which will impose a severe negative influence on the engine performance and service life, thus limiting the development of downsizing gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. More and more studies reveal that the auto-ignition of lubricants is the potential source for pre-ignition. However, pre-ignition is complicated to study on the engine test bench. In this paper, a convenient test method is applied to investigate the influence of lubricants metal-additives on pre-ignition. 8 groups of lubricants are injected into a hot co-flow atmosphere which generated by a burner. A single-hole nozzle injector with a diameter of 0.2 mm at 20 MPa injection pressure is utilized for lubricants' injection and spray atomization. The ignition delays of lubricants with different additives of calcium, ZDDP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates) and magnesium content under the hot co-flow atmosphere are recorded with a high-speed camera.