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Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Pressure Boost Device for Relieving Turbocharger Delay Effect by Means of Utilizing Engine Waste Heat

2015-09-29
2015-01-2790
Turbochargers can improve vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy and are applied widely nowadays. Due to the existence of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure gas which generates from the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, the gas can be supplied for the shortage while the vehicle is accelerating, which can reduce turbocharger delay effect directly. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time. This paper adds a set of pressure booster device on the existing inflating-deflating device, whose thermal energy comes from the compressed air and lubricating oil, to facilitate pressure increasing in inflating-deflating device and help the chamber change sooner, which avails to relieve the delay effect.
Journal Article

Boiling Coolant Vapor Fraction Analysis for Cooling the Hydraulic Retarder

2015-04-14
2015-01-1611
The hydraulic retarder is the most stabilized auxiliary braking system [1-2] of heavy-duty vehicles. When the hydraulic retarder is working during auxiliary braking, all of the braking energy is transferred into the thermal energy of the transmission medium of the working wheel. Theoretically, the residual heat-sinking capability of the engine could be used to cool down the transmission medium of the hydraulic retarder, in order to ensure the proper functioning of the hydraulic retarder. Never the less, the hydraulic retarder is always placed at the tailing head of the gearbox, far from the engine, long cooling circuits, which increases the risky leakage risk of the transmission medium. What's more, the development trend of heavy load and high speed vehicle directs the significant increase in the thermal load of the hydraulic retarder, which even higher than the engine power.
Technical Paper

Cold-end Temperature Control Method for the Engine Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Module

2014-09-30
2014-01-2343
To make full use of engine exhaust heat and further improve the utilization of the energy efficiency of the heavy truck, thermoelectric module is used to contribute to thermoelectric power generation. The hot-end temperature of the module varies with the engine operating condition because it is connected with the exhaust pipe. The cold-end of the thermoelectric module is mainly cooled by engine cooling system. Increasing the temperature difference between the hot-end and cold-end of the thermoelectric module is a good way to improve the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. For the poor controllability of the hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module, this study puts forward by lowering the cold-end temperature of the thermoelectric module so as to ensure the improvement of the thermoelectric conversion efficiency. The cooling circle for the cold-end of the thermoelectric module which is independent of the engine cooling system is built.
Technical Paper

Color Variable Speed Limit Sign Visibility for the Freeway Exit Driving Safety

2017-03-28
2017-01-0085
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the freeway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more response time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The freeway exit speed limit sign (ESLS) is an effect way to remind the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the color variable ESLS system, which is placed at the same location with the traditional speed limit sign. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit recommendation in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change over the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles. The vehicle braking characteristics with various initial speeds in the deceleration area are studied.
Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1443
The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Economical speed planning for commercial vehicle slope driving

2020-04-14
2020-01-1285
Improper acceleration, deceleration and shift operation of vehicles on slopes will increase fuel consumption. In the long downhill road sections will even appear brake heat recession, increasing the risk of driving. Currently, the way to improve fuel economy is to improve engine performance and control shift timing, the way to prevent the thermal recession of the main brake in long downhill is to use retarder. The research object of this paper is the transport commercial vehicles. This paper presents a method to reduce vehicle fuel consumption and prevent brake thermal recession through reasonable speed planning. Accurate road slope information of vehicle direction is obtained by GPS/GIS system for speed planning calculation. In this paper, a vehicle transient fuel consumption model, a vehicle longitudinal dynamic model and a temperature rise model of the main brake are established.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Oil Inlet and Outlet Distribution on Hydraulic Retarder

2014-09-28
2014-01-2498
The paper studies on the basis of VOITH R133-2 hydraulic retarder, the inlet and outlet structures of the oil passage on the stator are rearranged, which are made a more uniform structure distribution. In order to find out the characteristics of this kind of structure arrangement. The flow passage models for two different structures are established, and the internal flow field characteristics are studied by using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method. The flow rules of the internal oil, the distribution of pressure field and velocity field as well as output braking torque are obtained. The results show that rearranged structure retarder has a more uniform pressure distribution and a lower output braking torque than original structure retarder. And the simulation verifies the effectiveness of simulating true flow by CFD in hydraulic retarder flow field and conduct retarder design and structure optimization.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Passenger Compartment Auxiliary Cooling System Based on Peltier Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-0155
The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Analysis of Vehicle Hydraulic Retarder Thermal Management System Based on Rankine Cycle

2016-09-18
2016-01-1941
Vehicle hydraulic retarders are applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling systems of hydraulic retarders, the working fluid is introduced into the heat exchanger to transfer heat to the cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by the engine cooling system. This prevents the waste heat of the working fluid from being used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle, the organic working fluid first transfers heat with the hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of the engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of the hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
Technical Paper

Heavy Truck Driveline Components Modeling and Thermal Analyzing

2009-10-06
2009-01-2905
In heavy truck driveline system, the components often include clutch, transmission, transfer case, drive shaft, etc. A fluid torque converter could be equipped in front of the transmission in order to improve the starting performance. Meanwhile, a hydraulic retarder could be introduced for auxiliary braking so as to adapt the truck to the brake on long downgrade in mountainous regions. Thus, the driveline heat load would have a notable increase. Both the fluid torque converter and the hydraulic retarder would produce a large quantity of heat, and a special cooling system is needed for adjusting the transmission fluid temperature with which the gains are potentially very large [1]. The heat load for driveline is often calculated based on empirical formula. For the heavy truck, however, if the heat value is underestimated, driveline components would suffer from overheated damage.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Evaporation System for the Hydraulic Retarder

2015-04-14
2015-01-1612
The hydraulic retarder is a significant auxiliary braking device [1] for the heavy duty vehicle. Traditionally, cooling circulatory system of the hydraulic retarder was coupled with the engine cooling system [2], and the thermal energy of the transmission medium would be cooled by the engine radiator ultimately. For this scheme, radiator's spare heat removal capacity could be fully utilized whereas the cooling system is very complicated and is hard to maintain. Furthermore, the corresponding of thermal management system lags behind the power change of the retarder. In this research, integrated cooling evaporation system is developed for the hydraulic retarder, which makes the cooling water contact with the transmission medium through the stator wall, so that it can rapidly response to the thermal variation of the retarder, keep the stability of the oil temperature and meanwhile reduce the risk of cooling medium leakage.
Technical Paper

Kalman Filter Slope Measurement Method Based on Improved GA-BP

2020-04-14
2020-01-0897
How to improve the measurement accuracy of road grade is the key content of the research on the speed warning of commercial vehicles in mountainous roads. If there is a large measurement error, the obtained speed threshold will be biased, posing a safety hazard. Conventional measuring instruments such as accelerometers and gyroscopes generally have noise fluctuation interference or time accumulation error, resulting in large measurement errors. In response to this situation, the Kalman filter method is often used for filtering to reduce the interference of unwanted signals, thereby improving the accuracy of the slope measurement. However, the Kalman filtering method is limited by the estimation error of various parameters, and the filtering effect is difficult to meet the project research requirements.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analyzing for Hydraulic-Driven Cooling System of Heavy Duty Truck

2016-04-05
2016-01-0222
The heavy duty trucks have large engine power and drive continuously in mountainous area, so the heat dissipation of engine is very important. In the traditional cooling system with fixed transmission ratio fan, the cooling capacity is insufficient and the engine is easy to be over-heated when the engine is working in low speed and heavy load conditions. Owning to the bigger size of electric motor compared to the hydraulic motor, it is not suitably applied to the heavy duty trucks. Contrasted with the electric motor, the hydraulic drive cooling system is widely applied in heavy duty trucks due to smaller size, larger power, continuous speed modulation and flexible installation location. However, the low transmission efficiency of the pump-motor system results in high power consumption of the cooling system. In this paper, the mathematical and simulation model of hydraulic-driven fan cooling system is established for the specific engine.
Technical Paper

Research on Matching for the Rankine Cycle Evaporate-condensate System of Hydraulic Retarder

2016-09-18
2016-01-1938
The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device used for commercial vehicle in a long slope brake, and its transmission oil generates a lot of heat in its working process. If the heat of transmission doesn’t go through a reasonable management, it will seriously affect the braking performance of hydraulic retarder. To cool down the transmission oil, it will aggravates the load of the engine cooling system, and the long cooling path sometimes causes heat exchange not timely. When the Rankine cycle is used for cooling the hydraulic retarder transmission oil in virtue of its good heat transfer performance in phase change process, it can make the transmission oil temperature controlled more stable. In this new system, the setting parameters of the Evaporate-condensate system will affect the stability of the transmission oil temperature in the hydraulic retarder inlet and the energy recovery efficiency of the system.
Technical Paper

Research on Road Simulator with Iterative Learning Control

2009-10-06
2009-01-2908
Road simulation experiment in laboratory is a most important method to enhance the design quality of vehicle products. Presently, two main control techniques for road simulation—remote parameter control (RPC) and minimum variance adaptive control—are both defective: the former becomes an open-loop control after generating the drive signals, however the latter is essentially a kind of gradual control. To realize the closed-loop control and increase the control quality, this article brings forward a PID open-closed loop control method. Firstly taking the original road simulator as a group to identify, a nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model was built with the dynamic neural network. Subsequently, this plant model was used to build the open-closed loop control system mentioned above. In the closed-loop a discrete PID controller was introduced to stabilize the system, while a P-type iterative learning control (ILC) was adopted to increase the control quality.
Technical Paper

Research on the Best Driving Speed of the Deceleration Bump

2020-04-14
2020-01-1088
The ride performance and stability of the vehicle will decrease while the vehicle passing a deceleration bump with a relatively high speed. If the speed is too low, the road efficiency and ride comfort will be affected. It is essential to identify a proper speed taking all the factors into consideration. In this paper, the dynamic model of the vehicle passing through the deceleration bump is established. Two kinds of indicators,vibration weighted acceleration RMS and wheel load impact coefficient, are used to comprehensively evaluate the ride comfort and stability. The highway model, vehicle model and two common trapezoidal and circular cross-sections bump models are set up in Carsim. Parameters such as vertical acceleration and tire force at different vehicle speed are obtained. Then use the nonlinear least square method to fit the data, and comprehensively consider the two indicators to get the best speed.
Technical Paper

Research on the performance of Magnetorheological Fluid Auxiliary Braking devices thermal management system based on Flat Plate Heat Pipes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0894
To prevent the braking recession, heavy commercial vehicles are often equipped with fluid auxiliary braking devices, such as hydraulic retarder. Hydraulic retarder can convert the vehicle’s kinetic energy to the fluid heat energy, which can enormously alleviate the main brake’s workload. The traditional hydraulic retarder can provide enough braking torque but has a delay during the braking. In this paper, a new type of magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) hydraulic retarder is introduced by replacing the traditional fluid with magnetorheological fluid because of its linear braking torque and quick response. By changing the magnetic field intensity, it is easier to control the braking torque than the traditional hydraulic retarder. The rise of magnetorheological fluid temperature during the braking period will reduce the hydraulic retarder’s performance.
Technical Paper

SUV Solar Roof with Photo-Thermal Effect for Ventilation ORC System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0240
The Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORC) is an effective means to use the solar energy. The system adopts the solar energy on the car roof as the heat source to make the ORC work and drive the thermoelectric air-conditioner. It can improve the entering comfort on the parking condition and the vehicle energy utilization efficiency. In this research, the system comprehensively applied the principle of sunshine concentration, heat collection and photo electricity. Then considering the working condition and performance features of ORC system, the car roof was designed to have a compact structure, through which the efficiency of the solar vehicle system could be improved. Firstly, the research analyzed the heat source temperature and the heat flux impact on the output power of the ORC system. After that, the performance of heat collection was identified according to the given thermoelectric air-condition’s power requirements.
Technical Paper

Safe Travelling Speed of Commercial Vehicles on Curves Based on Vehicle-Road Collaboration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0080
Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber

2018-04-03
2018-01-0582
The current paper proposes a hydraulic interconnected suspension system (HIS) based on a hydraulic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) comparatively with the passive suspensions. The structure and working principles of the HIS system are introduced in order to investigate the damping performance and energy regeneration characteristics of the proposed system. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the HIS-HESA system have been investigated based on a 4-DOF longitudinal half vehicle model. In the simulation, two different road inputs were used in the dynamic characterization of the HIS-HESA; the warp sinusoidal excitation, and the random road signal. In addition, a comparative analysis was provided for the dynamic responses of the half vehicle model for both the HIS-HESA and the conventional suspension. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of the HIS-HESA has been carried out highlining the key parameters that have a remarkable effect on the HIS-HESA performance.
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