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Technical Paper

A Study on Uniformity of Pre-Applied Lubricants from Mill Application to Draw Die

One of the causes of rejections for part breakage on automotive sheet steels at stamping plants is insufficient pre-applied lubricant (prelube) on the blank. There are several key processes that occur after the prelube is applied at the steel facility that can affect the prelube amount and distribution before the blank is stamped. To understand the effects of these key processes, a controlled study was performed to examine the effects of prelube application level, coiling, coil storage, blanking, lift storage, and blankwashing on the amount and distribution of prelube. After mill application, the prelube migrates from the center to the edge resulting in reduced oil levels (“dry spots”) in the center of the coil or blank. It was found that coiling and coil storage had the greatest effect on prelube migration. Extended lift storage resulted in continued reduction in prelube level at the center of the blank, but at a decreased rate.
Technical Paper

Applications of High Strength Steels in Hydroforming Dual Phase Vs. HSLA

Dual Phase (DP) high strength steel is widely used in Europe and Japan for automotive component applications, and has recently drawn greater attention in the North American automotive industry for improving crash performance and reducing weight. In comparison with high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel grades with similar initial yield strength, DP steel has the following advantages: higher strain hardening, higher energy absorption, higher fatigue strength, higher bake hardenablility, and no yield point elongation. This paper compares the performance of DP and HSLA steel grades before, during, and after hydroforming. Computer simulation results show that DP steel demonstrates more uniform material flow during hydroforming, better crash performance and less wrinkling tendency.
Technical Paper

Crash Performances of Advanced High Strength Steels of DP780, TRIP780 and DP980

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), such as dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, have been increasingly used in automotive industry. One of the major advantages of AHSS is the excellent crash energy absorption capability. In this study, crash performances were evaluated for four AHSS including DP980, DP780, TRIP780 (780T), and TRIP590 (590T). Axial crush and bending crush tests were performed to evaluate the material crush performance. High strain rate tension test results for those materials were also presented. FEA analyses with parameter sensitivity studies were conducted including strain rate sensitivity effect, part geometry effects, welding models and forming effects. Good correlations between simulation and experimental data were achieved.
Technical Paper

Denting Simulation and Verification

Dent resistance is one of the major requirements for automotive body panel design. It depends on material strength, thickness, panel geometry/shape and outer and inner panel assembling. Due to the complexity of the problem, the verification of dent resistance of body panels is often done after the panels are formed and assembled. In this paper, a computer simulation technique was developed for dent resistance predictions, which can potentially be used in early design stages before panels are produced. Simulation techniques are discussed using explicit finite element method (FEA) for forming simulation and implicit FEA for denting simulation. A lab stretch dome panel is used to demonstrate the feasibility of computer simulation for dent resistance prediction. The stretch dome panel, with double curvature geometry, is formed to 2% biaxial strain and then subjected to several incremental static loads until 0.2 mm dent depth is reached.
Technical Paper

Effect of Steel Strengthening Mechanisms on Dent Resistance of Automotive Body Panels

The dent resistance of a panel is an important consideration when selecting a type of steel for manufacturing. Yield strength, thickness of the formed part, and stiffness (related to curvature) of the panel each contribute to the overall denting behavior. This study examines the dent resistance of several grades of steel; the objective is to determine if a fundamental difference in denting behavior exists between bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable grades after normalizing with respect to yield strength and thickness in the panel. Several key parameters that may contribute to the denting process are examined, including effects of yield strength, strain aging, work hardening, and stiffness. In addition, an apparent strain-path dependence of yield point return has been observed in bake hardenable steels; the effect of this on dent resistance has yet to be determined.
Technical Paper

Formability of Mash Seam Welded Blanks: Effects of Welding Set-Up Conditions

It is known that the formability of tailored welded blanks depends on the welding set-up conditions. Little information is available on the correlation between the formability of welded blanks and weld set-up conditions. In this investigation, effects of mash seam welding parameters of weld current, weld force, material overlap and planish on formability performance of welded blanks are studied. The systematic design of experiments approach is used to identify the key weld parameters influencing the formability performance of welded blanks. It is found that high weld force decreases formability of welded blanks and high weld force coupled with a small material overlap results in very low forming limit of the weld zone. Weld current has little effect on formability of welded blanks and planishing significantly reduces it. Overall, the mash seam welded blanks produced with appropriate weld set-up conditions are robust with respect to formability.
Technical Paper

Hydroforming Performance of Laser Welded and Electric Resistance Welded High Strength Steel Tubes

The tubular hydroforming process has been used to reduce the weight of body-in-white (BIW) components by consolidating parts and eliminating weld flanges. Electric resistance welding (ERW) is the primary joining method for hydroformed tubes made of mild steels and some conventional high strength steels. Due to recently introduced Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS), such as dual phase and TRIP steels, laser welded (LW) tubes have also been considered for hydroforming applications, particularly for thin-wall, large-diameter tubes. In this study, LW and ERW tubes are evaluated in a free-expansion hydroforming process using various strength steels including AHSS. The LW tubes made from both DP590 and TRIP590 steels were successfully hydroformed to a 64% expansion ratio(the maximum for the die cavity), an improved performance over the ERW TRIP590 tubes. The ERW tubes made from C-Mn440 and lower strength grades were also free-expansion hydroformed successfully to the maximum die cavity.
Technical Paper

Hydroforming Simulation for High Strength Steel Tubes

Tubular hydroforming is being used extensively for manufacturing various automotive structural parts due to its weight reduction and cost saving potentials. The use of a thin wall advanced high strength steel (AHSS) tube offers great potential to further expand hydroforming applications to upper body components. In this study, numerical and experimental investigations are conducted on a free expansion hydroforming case using various AHSS thin wall tubes. The results are also compared with tubes made from conventional steels and different tubing processes. The appropriate use of the forming limit in hydroforming is also discussed. In numerical study, a new simulation method is developed and validated to handle tube material properties input. Good correlations to the experimental data have been obtained. The new method only requires the flat sheet stress–strain curves as the basic material property. Tube and weld properties are modeled as a pre-strained tubular blank.
Technical Paper

Influence of Laser Welding Parameters on Formability and Robustness of Blank Manufacturing: An Application to a Body Side Frame

A design of experiments is used to study the effect of laser weld parameters on formability of welded blanks for two different material combinations of cold rolled (bare) steel to cold rolled steel and cold rolled steel to hot dipped galvanized steel. Critical weld parameters influencing the formability of welded blanks are identified and the optimum weld set-up condition is obtained based on formability performance and consistency of formability for laser welded blanks. The results are applied to an automotive body side frame. The robustness of welded blank production is also assessed and the final welded set-up condition for the body side frame is obtained based on both the formability of welded blanks and the robustness of welded blank production. The body side frame is successfully made from the welded blanks with this final weld set-up condition.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Automotive Steel Body Panels

In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.