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Journal Article

Analysis of Oil Emission Mechanisms by Simulation and Mass Spectrometry

The improvement of engine efficiency, without adversely affecting oil consumption, blowby-gas, wear, or costs are desirable objectives for today's engine manufacturers as they strive to improve engine performance while trying to meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations. In this context the development of piston ring designs as well as optimized surface texturing and lubricating oil formulation is of main interest. The combination of simulation programs and the application of dynamic online oil emission measurement techniques lead to a target oriented development and a deeper understanding of the mechanisms causing oil consumption. The paper presents the results of the experimental and theoretical investigations of oil consumption mechanisms. A mass spectrometric method developed by the author et al., was used to measure the online oil emission in the exhaust gas by means of direct analysis of the lubricating oil molecules.
Technical Paper

Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

The efficient operation of powertrain test benches in research and development is strongly influenced by the state of “health” of the functional test object. Hence, the use of Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) with Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring is becoming increasingly popular. An EDDS should primarily avoid total loss of the test object and ensure that damaged parts are not completely destroyed, and can still be inspected. Therefore, any abnormality from the standard test object behavior, such as an exceeding of predefined limits, must be recognized at an early testing time, and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation. With sensors mounted on the test object, it is possible to isolate the damage cause in the event of its detection. Advanced EDDS configurations also optimize the predefined limits by learning new shutdown values according to the test object behavior within a very short time.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport across the Piston Ring Pack: Development of a Computationally Efficient Simulation Model

Increased quantities of fuel in the lubricating oil of CI engines pose a major challenge to the automotive industry in terms of controlling the oil aging and the wear caused by dilution. Due to a lack of methods to calculate the oil-fuel-composite transport across the ring pack, predicting the fuel ratio in the oil sump has been an extremely challenging task for engine manufacturers. An accurate and computationally efficient simulation model is critical to predict the quantity of fuel diluted in the oil in the preliminary development stage of automotive engines. In this work, the complex composite transport across the piston ring pack was reduced to a simple transport model, which was successfully implemented into a multi-body simulation of the ring pack. The calculation domain was partitioned into two parts, the ring grooves and the piston lands. Inside the grooves the oil flow caused by the pumping and squeezing action of the piston rings was calculated using the Reynolds equation.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Oil Sources in the Combustion Chamber of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

To reduce hydrocarbon and particle emissions as well as irregular combustion phenomena, the identification and quantification of possible oil sources in the combustion chamber of the direct injection gasoline engine are of main interest. The aim of this research activity is to fundamentally investigate the formation of locally increased lubricating oil concentration in the combustion chamber. For this purpose, the oil sources are considered separately from each other and divided into two groups - piston/compression ring and lubricating film on the liner. The associated oil emissions and their influence on the engine combustion process are the core of the investigations.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Optical Analysis of Oil Dilution in Diesel Regeneration Operation

High levels of exhaust temperature or rich mixtures are necessary for the regeneration of today's diesel particulate filters or NOx catalysts. Therefore, late main injection or post injection is an effective strategy but leads to the well-known problem of lubricating oil dilution depending on the geometry, rail pressure and injection strategy. In this paper a method is developed to simulate fuel entrainment into the lubricating oil wall film in the diesel combustion chamber to predict oil dilution in an early design stage prior to hardware availability for durability testing. The simulation method integrates a newly developed droplet-film interaction model and is compared to results of an optical single-cylinder diesel engine and a similar thermodynamic single-cylinder test engine. Phenomena of diesel post injection like igniting early post injection or split post injections with short energizing times are considered in this paper.