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Technical Paper

Combustion Performance of n-butanol, Hydrous Ethanol and Their Blends as Potential Surrogates for the Brazilian Gasoline

Concerns about global warming, pollutant emissions and energy security have driven research towards cleaner and more environmentally friendly fuels. In the same way as ethanol, butanol is a promising biofuel but with different characteristics such as higher calorific value and lower latent heat of vaporization. It has similar properties to those of gasoline, which makes it a potential surrogate for this fossil fuel. Therefore, the present study proposes a comparison among four different fuels i.e. n-butanol, n-butanol and ethanol blend (B73E27), gasoline and ethanol blend (G73E27), and hydrous ethanol. A single cylinder naturally aspirated research engine with port fuel injection was employed. Engine performance was experimentally evaluated and combustion parameters were determined through reverse calculation based on acquired intake, exhaust and in-cylinder pressure on GT-Power.
Technical Paper

Comparison of NOx emissions from hydrous ethanol and n-butanol predicted by an Otto cycle two-zone model using the Zeldovich reactions mechanism

Among the gases usually emitted by internal combustion engines, NOx chemical species appear as some of the causes of great environmental impact and damage to human health, which shows the relevance of its study and quantification, as well as the constant search for the reduction of these emissions. The use of biofuels such as hydrous ethanol and n-butanol has the goal of reducing CO2 emissions in comparison to fossil fuels. However, it has to be accomplished without increasing NOx emissions. Analyzing combustion of these two fuels through a two-zone model for an Otto cycle engine, this work compared quantitatively the NOx emissions with the Zeldovich reaction mechanism, which can predict the formation and consumption of these chemical species during the engine's combustion cycle, being thus known as thermal NO.
Technical Paper

Experimental evaluation of the emissions in an Otto cycle engine operating with hydrous and wet ethanol under different compression ratios

The ethanol fuel sold in Brazil, which is seen as an option that represents less polluting gases emitted into the atmosphere, goes through a period where its economic viability does not compensate its use against the alternative coming from nonrenewable sources. It is known that part of the cost associated with commercial ethanol is due to its purification through distillation, which decreases the water percentage in the final composition. Aiming to evaluate alternatives to reduce the final cost of the fuel, a comparison was made between the burning results of hydrous ethanol, with up to 5% of water by volume, and the wet ethanol, with 30% water by volume, in an Otto cycle engine, operating with a fixed speed of 1800 RPM and seeking the maximum brake torque in each test.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Compression Ratio Effect on Wet Ethanol Use in Spark Ignition Engines

Hydrous ethanol is pointed out as one of the major alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because it is environmental friendly (almost zero CO2 emission) and has excellent combustion properties. Recent studies have shown that ethanol-water fuel blends with higher water content (so-called wet ethanol) can reduce the overall costs of ethanol production. The use of wet ethanol results in lower nitrogen oxides emissions at the cost of reduced lower heating value per mass of fuel blend, which may result in less thermal efficiency. On the other hand, the increase in water content improves knock resistance. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of mechanical compression ratio variation on a spark ignition engine using ethanol-water fuel blends containing 4, 10, 20 and 30% v/v of water in ethanol. The research was carried out in a SI single cylinder engine, port fuel injected, 0.668 dm3 with the compression ratio modified by spacer rings.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of a Spark Ignited Engine Running on Different Water-in-Ethanol Mixtures

The current quest for clean and renewable fuels has prompted the appearance of several bio-mass fuel alternatives. Ethanol is a renewable biofuel obtained from different agricultural crops. The main production process to obtain anhydrous ethanol consists of crop production, mashing and cooking, fermentation, distillation and chemical dehydration. Some attractive characteristics of ethanol as a clean energy source is the CO2 absorption through photosynthesis during the crop plantation phase and positive ethanol life cycle energy balance. Even though, ethanol production cost is still relatively high when compared to fossil fuels. Knowing that a large energy amount is spent in the distillation phase, the use of hydrous ethanol as fuel, with high water content, can be economically attractive. This paper compares the use of high water-in-ethanol volumetric content fuel, varying from 5% to 40%, in a naturally aspirated 0.668-L single-cylinder port-fuel injected spark-ignited engine.
Technical Paper

Performance of hydrous ethanol, butanol, and their blends in comparison to primary reference fuels on a spark-ignited engine

Global warming and pollutant emission concerns have been driving research towards cleaner and environmentally friendly fuels. Like ethanol, butanol is a promising biofuel with characteristics such as higher calorific value and lower latent heat of vaporization. Due to its similar properties to those of gasoline, butanol stands as a potential gasoline surrogate. Butanol can be produced from through the ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol) fermentation process, which uses bacterial fermentation to produce acetone, n-Butanol, and ethanol from carbohydrates such as starch and glucose. This work presents the experimental results of a single-cylinder spark ignition research engine equipped with port fuel injection. Several compression ratios were compared via spacer rings. Fuels as n-butanol, hydrous ethanol (E95W05) and their blends were evaluated in comparison to primary reverence fuel (isooctane).