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Journal Article

A Detailed Chemistry Multi-cycle Simulation of a Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine Operated with NVO

A previously developed Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate combustion in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection Spark Ignition (SI) engine modified to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO). A portion of the fuel is injected during NVO to increase the cylinder temperature and enable HCCI combustion at a compression ratio of 12:1. The model is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for the open valve portion of the engine cycle. The SRM is used to model in-cylinder mixing, heat transfer and chemistry during the NVO and main combustion. Direct injection is simulated during NVO in order to predict heat release and internal Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) composition and mass. The NOx emissions and simulated pressure profiles match experimental data well, including the cyclic fluctuations.
Journal Article

A Detailed Chemistry Simulation of the SI-HCCI Transition

A Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) has been used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) mode to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modelling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The model is initially calibrated in both modes using steady state data from SI and HCCI operation. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as utilising a pilot injection. Experimental data is presented along with the simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Fast Detailed-Chemistry Modelling Approach for Simulating the SI-HCCI Transition

An established Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode in a four-cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modeling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as using a pilot injection. A proven technique for tabulating the model is used to create look-up tables in both SI and HCCI modes. In HCCI mode several tables are required, including tables for the first NVO, transient valve timing NVO, transient valve timing HCCI and steady valve timing HCCI and NVO.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Process by Chemiluminescence Imaging

An experimental study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process has been conducted by using chemiluminescence imaging. The major intent was to characterize the flame structure and its transient behavior. To achieve this, time resolved images of the naturally emitted light were taken. Emitted light was studied by recording its spectral content and applying different filters to isolate species like OH and CH. Imaging was enabled by a truck-sized engine modified for optical access. An intensified digital camera was used for the imaging. Some imaging was done using a streak-camera, capable of taking eight arbitrarily spaced pictures during a single cycle, thus visualizing the progress of the combustion process. All imaging was done with similar operating conditions and a mixture of n-heptane and iso-octane was used as fuel. Some 20 crank angles before Top Dead Center (TDC), cool flames were found to exist.
Journal Article

Air-Entrainment in Wall-Jets Using SLIPI in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Mixing in wall-jets was investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine with several injector configurations and injection pressures. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was employed in non-reacting conditions in order to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratios in colliding wall-jets. A novel laser diagnostic technique, Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI), was successfully implemented in an optical engine and permits to differentiate LIF signal from multiply scattered light. It was used to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratio in colliding wall-jets under non-reacting conditions. Mixing phenomena in wall-jets were analyzed by comparing the equivalence ratio in the free part of the jet with that in the recirculation zone where two wall-jets collide. These results were then compared to φ predictions for free-jets. It was found that under the conditions tested, increased injection pressure did not increase mixing in the wall-jets.
Journal Article

Analysis of EGR Effects on the Soot Distribution in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine using Time-Resolved Laser Induced Incandescence

The soot distribution as function of ambient O₂ mole fraction in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated at low load (6 bar IMEP) with laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity. A Multi-YAG laser system was utilized to create time-resolved LII using 8 laser pulses with a spacing of one CAD with detection on an 8-chip framing camera. It is well known that the engine-out smoke level increases with decreasing oxygen fraction up to a certain level where it starts to decrease again. For the studied case the peak occurred at an O₂ fraction of 11.4%. When the oxygen fraction was decreased successively from 21% to 9%, the initial soot formation moved downstream in the jet. At the lower oxygen fractions, below 12%, no soot was formed until after the wall interaction. At oxygen fractions below 11% the first evidence of soot is in the recirculation zone between two adjacent jets.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Smokeless Spray Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Combined Simultaneous Optical Diagnostics

A heavy duty diesel engine operating case producing no engine-out smoke was studied using combined simultaneous optical diagnostics. The case was close to a typical low load modern diesel operating point without EGR. Parallels were drawn to the conceptual model by Dec and results from high-pressure combustion vessels. Optical results revealed that no soot was present in the upstream part of the jet cross-section. Soot was only observed in the recirculation zones close to the bowl perimeter. This indicated very slow soot formation and was explained by a significantly higher air entrainment rate than in Dec's study. The local fuel-air equivalence ratio, Φ, at the lift-off length was estimated to be 40% of the value in Dec's study. The lower Φ in the jet produced a different Φ -T-history, explaining the soot results. The increased air entrainment rate was mainly due to smaller nozzle holes and increased TDC density.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Correlation Between Engine-Out Particulates and Local Φ in the Lift-Off Region of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using Raman Spectroscopy

The local equivalence ratio, Φ, was measured in fuel jets using laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering in an optical heavy duty diesel engine. The measurements were performed at 1200 rpm and quarter load (6 bar IMEP). The objective was to study factors influencing soot formation, such as gas entrainment and lift-off position, and to find correlations with engine-out particulate matter (PM) levels. The effects of nozzle hole size, injection pressure, inlet oxygen concentration, and ambient density at TDC were studied. The position of the lift–off region was determined from OH chemiluminescence images of the flame. The liquid penetration length was measured with Mie scattering to ensure that the Raman measurement was performed in the gaseous part of the spray. The local Φ value was successfully measured inside a fuel jet. A surprisingly low correlation coefficient between engine-out PM and the local Φ in the reaction zone were observed.
Technical Paper

Automated IC Engine Model Development with Uncertainty Propagation

This paper describes the development of a novel data model for storing and sharing data obtained from engine experiments, it then outlines a methodology for automatic model development and applies it to a state-of-the-art engine combustion model (including chemical kinetics) to reduce corresponding model parameter uncertainties with respect engine experiments. These challenges are met by adopting the latest developments in the semantic web to create a shared data model resource for the IC engine development community. The relevant data can be extracted and then used to set-up simulations for parameter estimation by passing it to the relevant application models. A methodology for incorporating experimental and model uncertainties into the model optimization procedure is presented.
Journal Article

Challenges for In-Cylinder High-Speed Two-Dimensional Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Soot

Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) has traditionally been considered a straightforward and reliable optical diagnostic technique for in-cylinder soot measurements. As a result, it is nowadays even possible to buy turn-key LII measurement systems. During recent years, however, attention has been drawn to a number of unresolved challenges with LII. Many of these are relevant mostly for particle sizing using time-resolved LII, but also two-dimensional soot volume fraction measurements are affected, especially in regions with high soot concentrations typically found in combustion engines. In this work the focus is on the specific challenges involved in performing high-repetition rate measurements with LII in diesel engines. All the mentioned issues might not be possible to overcome but they should nevertheless be known and their potential impact should be considered.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Laser-Extinction and Natural Luminosity Measurements for Soot Probing in Diesel Optical Engines

Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
Technical Paper

Comparison of heat losses at the impingement point and in between two impingement points in a diesel engine using phosphor thermometry

In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines reduce engine efficiency significantly and account for a considerable amount of injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the impingement of the flame. The present study compares the heat losses at the point where the flame impinges onto the piston bowl wall and the heat losses between two impingement points. Measurements were performed in a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the combusting diesel spray and at a point in between two impingement points was determined using phosphor thermometry. The dynamic heat fluxes and the heat transfer coefficients which result from the surface temperature measurements are estimated. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to individual surface temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Lift-Off Lengths Obtained by Simultaneous OH-LIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature reaction region usually has been used to determine the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. Both OH Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence diagnostics have been widely used in optical engines for measuring the LOL. OH* chemiluminescence is radiation from OH being formed in the exited states (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information across the imaged volume. In contrast, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the energy ground state. The OH-LIF images only show OH distribution in the thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. When both these techniques have been applied in earlier work, it has often been reported that the chemiluminescence measurements result in shorter lift-off lengths than the LIF approach.
Technical Paper

Cycle Resolved Wall Temperature Measurements Using Laser-Induced Phosphorescence in an HCCI Engine

Cycle resolved wall temperature measurements have been performed in a one cylinder port injected optical Scania D12 truck engine run in HCCI mode. Point measurements at various locations were made using Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (LIP). Single point measurements with thermographic phosphors utilize the temperature dependancy of the phosphorescence decay time. The phosphorescence peak at 538 nm from the thermographic phosphor La2O2S:Eu was used to determine temperature. A frequency tripled 10 Hz pulsed Nd:YAG laser delivering ultra violet (UV) radiation at 355 nm was used for excitation of the phosphor. Detection in the spectral region 535 - 545 nm was performed every cycle with a photo multiplier tube connected to a 3 GHz oscilloscope. Measurements were made at four points on the cylinder head surface and two points on the outlet and inlet valves respectively. For each location measurements were made at different loads and at different crank angle degrees (CAD).
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Effects on HCCI Operating Range: Experiments with Primary Reference Fuels

Results from a large set of HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane are presented and discussed in this paper. The experiments are designed to scrutinize fuel reactivity effects on the operating range of an HCCI engine. The fuel effects on upper and lower operating limits are measured respectively by the maximum pressure rise rate inside the cylinder and the stability of engine operation as determined by cycle-to-cycle variations in IMEP. Another set of experiments that examine the intake air heating effects on HCCI engine performance, exhaust emissions and operating envelopes is also presented. The effects of fuel reactivity and intake air heating on the HCCI ranges are demonstrated by constructing the operating envelopes for the different test fuels and intake temperatures.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on the Ignition and Mode of Combustion in a HD PPC Engine Running Low Load

This work aims to study the effect of fuel inhomogeneity on the ignition process and subsequent combustion in a compression ignition Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF) in low load conditions. Five cases with injection timings ranging from the start of injection (SOI) at -70 crank angle degrees (CAD) to -17 CAD have been studied numerically and experimentally in a heavy duty (HD) piston bowl geometry. Intake temperature is adjusted to keep the combustion phasing constant. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a closed cycle sector domain using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation with k-ϵ turbulence closure and direct coupling of finite rate chemistry. The results are compared with engine experiments. The predicted trends in required intake temperature and auto-ignition location for a constant combustion phasing are consistent with experiments.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Strategies on Fluid Flow and Turbulence in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in a Light Duty Engine

Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. With gasoline fuels, PPC has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of the fuel/air mixture, which prevents soot formation. In addition, the overall combustion stability can be increased with a longer ignition delay, providing proper fuel injection strategies. In this work, the effects of multiple injections on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence at a single swirl ratio are investigated. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) is conducted in an optical direct-injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. Primary reference fuel (PRF) 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) is used as the PPC fuel. In order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similarly as possible to the flow that would exist in a production engine, the quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry.
Technical Paper

Effects of Post-Injections Strategies on UHC and CO at Gasoline PPC Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Optical Engine

Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown potential in terms of high efficiency with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot. Despite these benefits, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main shortcomings of the concept. These are caused, among other things, by overlean zones near the injector tip and injector dribble. Previous diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) research has demonstrated post injections to be an effective strategy to mitigate these emissions. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of post injections on CO and UHC emissions in a quiescent (non-swirling) combustion system. A blend of primary reference fuels, PRF87, having properties similar to US pump gasoline was used at PPC conditions in a heavy duty optical engine. The start of the main injection was maintained constant. Dwell and mass repartition between the main and post injections were varied to evaluate their effect.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the EGR-AFR Operating Range of a HCCI Engine

We present a computational tool to develop an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) - air-fuel ratio (AFR) operating range for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. A single cylinder Ricardo E-6 engine running in HCCI mode, with external EGR is simulated using an improved probability density function (PDF) based engine cycle model. For a base case, the in-cylinder temperature and unburned hydrocarbon emissions predicted by the model show a satisfactory agreement with measurements [Oakley et al., SAE Paper 2001-01-3606]. Furthermore, the model is applied to develop the operating range for various combustion parameters, emissions and engine parameters with respect to the air-fuel ratio and the amount of EGR used. The model predictions agree reasonably well with the experimental results for various parameters over the entire EGR-AFR operating range thus proving the robustness of the PDF based model.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of a Control Method for SI-HCCI-SI Transition in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

In HCCI engines, the Air/Fuel Ratio (AFR) and Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) are difficult to control during the SI-HCCI-SI transition, and this may result in incomplete combustion and/or high pressure raise rates. As a result, there may be undesirably high engine load fluctuations. The objectives of this work are to further understand this process and develop control methods to minimize these load fluctuations. This paper presents data on instantaneous AFR and RGF measurements, both taken by novel experimental techniques. The data provides an insight into the cyclic AFR and RGF fluctuations during the switch. These results suggest that the relatively slow change in the intake Manifold Air Pressure (MAP) and actuation time of the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) are the main causes of undesired AFR and RGF fluctuations, and hence an unacceptable Net IMEP (NIMEP) fluctuation. We also found large cylinder-to-cylinder AFR variations during the transition.