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Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of WHR System in HD Engines Using Conventional Diesel Combustion and Partially-Premixed Combustion

In the truck industry there is a continuous demand to increase the efficiency and to decrease the emissions. To acknowledge both these issues a waste heat recovery system (WHR) is combined with a partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine to deliver an efficient engine system. Over the past decades numerous attempts to increase the thermal efficiency of the diesel engine has been made. One such attempt is the PPC concept that has demonstrated potential for substantially increased thermal efficiency combined with much reduced emission levels. So far most work on increasing engine efficiency has been focused on improving the thermal efficiency of the engine while WHR, which has an excellent potential for another 1-5 % fuel consumption reduction, has not been researched that much yet. In this paper a WHR system using a Rankine cycle has been developed in a modeling environment using IPSEpro.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Surrogate Fuels Effect on Ignition Delay and Low Temperature Reaction during Partially Premixed Combustion

Fuel effects on ignition delay and low temperature reactions (LTR) during partially premixed combustion (PPC) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DoE). The test matrix included seventeen mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol covering a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. Experiments were performed on a light-duty diesel engine at 8 bar IMEPg, 1500 rpm with a variation in combustion phasing, inlet oxygen concentration and injection pressure. A single injection strategy was used and the start of injection and injection duration were adjusted to achieve the desired load and combustion phasing. The experimental data show that fuels with higher Research Octane Number (RON) values generally produced longer ignition delays. In addition, the alcohol content had significantly stronger effect on ignition delay than the aromatic content.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Diesel Engine with Diesel and PPC Combustion Modes

In this study, an investigation was made on a heavy duty diesel engine using both conventional diesel combustion mode and a partially premixed combustion (PPC) mode. A segment mesh was built up and modeled using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE, where only the closed volume cycle, between IVC and EVO, was modeled. Both combustion modes were validated using experimental data, before a number of heat flux boundary conditions were applied. These conditions were used to evaluate the engine response in terms of engine performance and emission levels for the different percentage of heat rejection. The engine performance was measured in terms of specific fuel consumption and estimated power output, while the calculated net soot and accumulated NOx mass fractions were used for comparing the emission levels. The results showed improved efficiency for both combustion types, but only the PPC combustion mode managed that without increasing the production of NOx emissions severely.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on Injection Strategy and Gasoline Quality Impact on In-Cylinder Temperature Distribution and Heat Transfer in PPC

Recently, internal combustion engine design has been moving towards downsized, more efficient engines. One key in designing a more efficient engine is the control of heat losses, i.e., improvements of the thermodynamic cycle. Therefore, there is increasing interest in examining and documenting the heat transfer process of an internal combustion engine. A heavy-duty diesel engine was modeled with a commercial CFD code in order to examine the effects of two different gasoline fuels, and the injection strategy used, on heat transfer within the engine cylinder in a partially premixed combustion (PPC) mode. The investigation on the fuel quality and injection strategy indicates that the introduction of a pilot injection is more beneficial in order to lower heat transfer, than adjusting the fuel quality. This is due to reduced wall exposure to higher temperature gases and more equally distributed heat losses in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Close to Stoichiometric Partially Premixed Combustion -The Benefit of Ethanol in Comparison to Conventional Fuels

Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC, with 50% Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) at lean combustion conditions λ =1.5, has shown good efficiency and low emissions in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine. To meet emission requirements in all loads and transient operation, aftertreatment devices are likely needed. Reducing λ to unity, when a three-way catalyst can be applied, extremely low emissions possibility exists for stoichiometric PPC. In this study, the possibility to operate clean PPC from lean condition to stoichiometric equivalence ratio with reasonable efficiency and non-excessive soot emission was investigated. Two EGR rates, 48% and 38% with two fuel rates were determined for 99.5 vol% ethanol in comparison with one gasoline fuel and Swedish diesel fuel (MK1). Engine was operated at 1250 rpm and 1600 bar injection pressure with single injection. Results revealed that efficiency was reduced and soot emission increased from lean PPC to stoichiometric PPC operation.
Technical Paper

Combined Low and High Pressure EGR for Higher Brake Efficiency with Partially Premixed Combustion

The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engines has shown to yield high gross indicated efficiencies, but at the expense of gas exchange efficiencies. Most of the experimental research on partially premixed combustion has been conducted on compression ignition engines designed to operate on diesel fuel and relatively high exhaust temperatures. The partially premixed combustion concept on the other hand relies on dilution with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates to slow down the combustion which results in low exhaust temperatures, but also high mass flows over cylinder, valves, ports and manifolds. A careful design of the gas exchange system, EGR arrangement and heat exchangers is therefore of utter importance. Experiments were performed on a heavy-duty, compression ignition engine using a fuel consisting of 80 volume % 95 RON service station gasoline and 20 volume % n-heptane.
Journal Article

Combustion Stratification with Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC, using NVO and Split Injection in a LD - Diesel Engine

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels have the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation at higher loads. The objective of this paper is to investigate the degree of stratification for low load (towards idle) engine conditions using different injection strategies and negative valve overlap (NVO). The question is, how homogenous or stratified is the partially premixed combustion (PPC) for a given setting of NVO and fuel injection strategy. In this work PRF 55 has been used as PPC fuel. The experimental engine is a light duty (LD) diesel engine that has been modified to single cylinder operation to provide optical access into the combustion chamber, equipped with a fully variable valve train system. Hot residual gases were trapped by using NVO to dilute the cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Reactions in PPC and HCCI Combustion

The current research focus on fuel effects on low temperature reactions (LTR) in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC). LTR result in a first stage of heat release with decreasing reaction rate at increasing temperature. This makes LTR important for the onset of the main combustion. However, auto-ignition is also affected by other parameters and all fuel does not exhibit LTR. Moreover, the LTR does not only depend on fuel type but also on engine conditions. This research aims to understand how fuel composition affects LTR in each type of combustion mode and to determine the relative importance of chemical and physical fuel properties for PPC. For HCCI the chemical properties are expected to dominate over physical properties, since vaporization and mixing are completed far before start of combustion.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Gasoline and Primary Reference Fuel in the Transition from HCCI to PPC

Our previous research investigated the sensitivity of combustion phasing to intake temperature and injection timing during the transition from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to partially premixed combustion (PPC) fuelled with generic gasoline. The results directed particular attention to the relationship between intake temperature and combustion phasing which reflected the changing of stratification level with the injection timing. To confirm its applicability with the use of different fuels, and to investigate the effect of fuel properties on stratification formation, primary reference fuels (PRF) were tested using the same method: a start of injection sweep from -180° to -20° after top dead center with constant combustion phasing by tuning the intake temperature. The present results are further developed compared with those of our previous work, which were based on generic gasoline.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Kinetic Mechanisms for Numerical Simulation of Methanol Combustion in DICI Heavy-Duty Engine

The combustion process in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is mainly governed by ignition wave propagation. The in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and the emission characteristics are thus largely driven by the chemical kinetics of the fuel. As a result, CFD simulation of such combustion process is very sensitive to the employed reaction mechanism, which model the real chemical kinetics of the fuel. In order to perform engine simulation with a range of operating conditions and cylinder-piston geometry for the design and optimization purpose, it is essential to have a chemical kinetic mechanism that is both accurate and computational inexpensive. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of several chemical kinetic mechanisms for methanol combustion, including large mechanisms and skeletal/reduced mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Development of New Test Method for Evaluating HCCI Fuel Performance

This study examines fuel auto-ignitability and shows a method for determining fuel performance for HCCI combustion by doing engine experiments. Previous methods proposed for characterizing HCCI fuel performance were assessed in this study and found not able to predict required compression ratio for HCCI auto-ignition (CRAI) at a set combustion phasing. The previous indices that were studied were the Octane Index (OI), developed by Kalghatgi, and the HCCI Index, developed by Shibata and Urushihara. Fuels with the same OI or HCCI Index were seen to correspond to a wide range of compression ratios in these experiments, so a new way to describe HCCI fuel performance was sought. The Lund-Chevron HCCI Number was developed, using fuel testing in a CFR engine just as for the indices for spark ignition (research octane number and motor octane number, RON and MON) and compression ignition (cetane number, CN).
Journal Article

Double Compression Expansion Engine Concepts: A Path to High Efficiency

Internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel efficiency is a balance between good indicated efficiency and mechanical efficiency. High indicated efficiency is reached with a very diluted air/fuel-mixture and high load resulting in high peak cylinder pressure (PCP). On the other hand, high mechanical efficiency is obtained with very low peak cylinder pressure as the piston rings and bearings can be made with less friction. This paper presents studies of a combustion engine which consists of a two stage compression and expansion cycle. By splitting the engine into two different cycles, high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) cycles respectively, it is possible to reach high levels of both indicated and mechanical efficiency simultaneously. The HP cycle is designed similar to today's turbo-charged diesel engine but with an even higher boost pressure, resulting in high PCP. To cope with high PCP, the engine needs to be rigid.
Technical Paper

Effect of Start of Injection on the Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol

Methanol as an alternative fuel in internal combustion engines has an advantage in decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases and soot. Hence, developing of a high performance internal combustion engine operating with methanol has attracted the attention in industry and academic research community. This paper presents a numerical study of methanol combustion at different start-of-injection (SOI) in a direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine supported by experimental studies. The aim is to investigate the combustion behavior of methanol with single and double injection at close to top-dead-center (TDC) conditions. The experimental engine is a modified version of a heavy duty D13 Scania engine. URANS simulations are performed for various injection timings with delayed SOI towards TDC, aiming at analyzing the characteristics of partially premixed combustion (PPC).
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Intake Pressure on PPC of Conventional Diesel, Gasoline and Ethanol in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed.
Technical Paper

Emission Formation Study of HCCI Combustion with Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

HCCI combustion can be enabled by many types of liquid and gaseous fuels. When considering what fuels will be most suitable, the emissions also have to be taken into account. This study focuses on the emissions formation originating from different fuel components. A systematic study of over 40 different gasoline surrogate fuels was made. All fuels were studied in a CFR engine running in HCCI operation. Many of the fuels were blended to achieve similar RON's and MON's as gasoline fuels, and the components (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol) were chosen to represent the most important in gasoline; nparaffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and oxygenates. The inlet air temperature was varied from 50°C to 150°C to study the effects on the emissions. The compression ratio was adjusted for each operating point to achieve combustion 3 degrees after TDC. The engine was run at an engine speed of 600 rpm, with ambient intake air pressure and with an equivalence ratio of 0.33.
Journal Article

Exhaust PM Emissions Analysis of Alcohol Fueled Heavy-Duty Engine Utilizing PPC

The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running an engine in PPC (Partially Premixed Combustion) mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest mass concentration of particles (Micro Soot Sensor) were gasoline and methanol followed by ethanol. The two alcohols tested emitted nucleation mode particles only, whereas gasoline emitted accumulation mode particles as well.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Surrogate Fuels for Partially Premixed Combustion, of Toluene Ethanol Reference Fuels

Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is intended to improve fuel efficiency and minimize the engine-out emissions. PPC is known to have the potential to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot, but often at the expense of increased emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). PPC has demonstrated remarkable fuel flexibility and can be operated with a large variety of liquid fuels, ranging from low-octane, high-cetane diesel fuels to high-octane gasolines and alcohols. Several research groups have demonstrated that naphtha fuels provide a beneficial compromise between functional load range and low emissions. To increase the understanding of the influence of individual fuel components typically found in commercial fuels, such as alkenes, aromatics and alcohols, a systematic experimental study of 15 surrogate fuel mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol was performed in a light-duty PPC engine using a design of experiment methodology.
Technical Paper

HCCI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions - Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has constructed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 11] that is fueled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an internal combustion engine and a generator, a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the produced gas is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity it necessitates an engine that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines of today are designed and optimized for SI-operation on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Heat Loss Analysis for Various Piston Geometries in a Heavy-Duty Methanol PPC Engine

Partially premixed combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engine as a low temperature combustion strategy has shown great potential to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. Methanol due to its unique properties is considered as a preferable PPC engine fuel. The injection timing to achieve methanol PPC conditions should be set very close to TDC, allowing to utilize spray-bowl interaction to further improve combustion process in terms of emissions and heat losses. In this study CFD simulations are performed to investigate spray-bowl interaction for a number of different piston designs and its impact on the heat transfer and the overall piston performance. The validation case is based on a single cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13 engine with a compression ratio 15. The operation point is set to low load 5.42 IMEPg bar with SOI -3 aTDC.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Strategies on Engine Efficiency for a Methanol PPC Engine

Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies.