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Technical Paper

A New Type Partial Flow Dilution Tunnel with Geometrical Partitioning for Diesel Particulate Measurement

The authors have developed a new partial flow dilution tunnel (hereafter referred to as PPFT), whose principal device is a flux splitting gas divider, as a new means of measuring particulate emissions which can be applied to transient cycle testing of diesel engines. The advantage of this system is that it can achieve perfect constant velocity splitting by means of its structure, and theoretically can also maintain high splitting performance despite fluctuations in the exhaust flow rate, including those due to engine exhaust pulsation. We compared this system with a full tunnel by analyzing the basic performance of the system and measuring particulate matter (PM) using an actual vehicle engine.
Technical Paper

An EGR Control Method for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines under Transient Operations

Experiments and analyses were carried out to determine the effects of EGR on NOx and other pollutants for heavy-duty direct injection diesel engines under steady state conditions. Then based on them, optimum EGR control method was examined for effective NOx reduction without causing substantial increases of other pollutants under transient conditions. A simple EGR control system was developed for trial to achieve almost the same effects of the said method. Results of experiments with this system indicated that the EGR control method was capable of substantial reduction of NOx mass emission during transient engine operations equivalent to actual driving conditions, with different pay-loads and average vehicle speeds. REDUCTION of the NOx mass emission from heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles during actual driving operations, is one of the most important demands in automobile technologies.
Technical Paper

Combustion Control Method of Homogeneous Charge Diesel Engines

Under heavy load condition, single fuel operation with diesel fuel was studied experimentally for the homogeneous charge diesel combustion (HCDC) method. HCDC engine, in which pre-mixture was formed by fuel injected into an intake manifold and mixed with air beforehand then ignited by small amount of fuel directly injected into a cylinder, can reduce NOx and smoke simultaneously from the diesel engine. In HCDC the higher the premixed fuel ratio was, the lower the emissions were. Accordingly, it was indicated that homogeneous pre-mixture contributed to improvement of exhaust emissions. However, a diesel knocking due to uncontrolled self-ignition may occur under high premixed fuel ratio conditions in the case of operating heavy loads. Thus, the maximum amount of premixed fuel was restricted by these knocking limits.
Technical Paper

Comparative Measurement of Nano-Particulates in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas by Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)

Particulate Matter (PM) from diesel engines is thought to be seriously hazardous for human health. Generally, it is said that the hazard depends on the total number and surface area of particles rather than total mass of PM. In the conventional gravimetric method, only the total mass of PM is measured. Therefore, it is very important to measure not only the mass of PM but also size and number density of particulates. Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) is a useful diagnostic for transient measurement of soot particulate volume fraction and primary particle size. On the other hand, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) is also used to measure the size distribution of soot aggregate particulates at a steady state condition. However, the measurement processes and the phenomena used to acquire the information on soot particulate are quite different between the LII and SMPS methods. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the detailed characteristics of both LII and SMPS.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

Continuous Measurement of Diesel Particulate Emissions by an Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor

In addition to PM total matter, PM size distribution is recently receiving increased attention because of the dependency of PM size on human health effects. Thus, PM size distributions and the emission behavior under various driving patterns are becoming important in diesel particulate emissions. Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)_is a candidate to measure continuously, not only PM mass, but also particulate size distribution. Therefore, we investigated using ELPI to measure diesel particulate mass and size distribution, together with time series behaviors under various driving patterns. This study demonstrated the feasibility of continuous measurement of PM size distribution by means of an ELPI. The typical PM size distribution curve on weight base has a peak of 0.18 micrometer. The typical PM size distribution curve on number base has a peak of 0.11 micrometer. Engine load influences these characteristics.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for Urea-SCR System in Single Step Load Transition

Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper

Deterioration Effect of Three-way Catalyst on Nitrous Oxide Emission

To find a clue to reduction techniques for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission from three-way catalyst equipped vehicles, four test samples of three-way catalysts with typical noble metal compositions were fabricated by way of experiment and their N2O formation characteristics have been experimentally studied. Then, these catalyst samples were conditioned artificially by aging with real automotive exhaust gas and the N2O formation characteristics after aging has been also observed. As results, catalyst temperature zones and concentration levels of N2O formation varies greatly by the catalyst composition. In general, a catalyst with lower metal content showed lower N2O mass emission at both fresh and after aging conditions. The tendency of the increase in N2O mass emission due to the deterioration is also different among the tested catalyst samples.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Engine Control System with Predictive Control and its Application for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

To control the transient automatic operation of engines with two variables (speed and torque), feedback control has been used conventionally. Feedback control, however, does not have sufficient transient characteristics, and it is extremely difficult to perform accurate mode trace operation. To improve the control characteristics in transient operation, we have developed a new-concept automatic engine control system. The new system performs predictive control using an engine performance model that is obtained from learning operation. It is now very easy to perform operations that require accurate traces; operations such as exhaust emission and fuel consumption measurements.
Technical Paper

Effect of Boiling Point Differences of Two-Component Normal Paraffin Fuels on Combustion and Emission in CI Engines

The effect of boiling point difference as well as the flash boiling of two-component normal paraffin fuels on combustion and exhaust emission has been examined under different test conditions. To obtain a wide variation in boiling point between components different high boiling point fuels (n-undecane, n-tridecane and n-hexadecane) were blended with a low boiling point fuel (n-pentane) and different low boiling point fuels (n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) were blended with a high boiling point fuel (n-hexadecane). In addition the volume fraction of n-pentane was varied to have the best mixture ratio with n-tridecane. These fuel combinations exhibit different potential for flash boiling based on a certain ambient condition. The results indicate that though the potential for flash boiling is the highest for a mixture of n-pentane and n-hexadecane it emits about 20% higher PM than a mixture of n-pentane and n-tridecane.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR with a Supplemental Manifold Water Injection to Control Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Powered Vehicles

Combined system with EGR and Manifold water injection was developed for trial to control exhaust NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles and its effects were experimentally studied under not only steady-state but also actual driving conditions including transient. From the experimental analyses under steady-state conditions, it was recognized that higher NOx reduction may be possible with this combined system compared with the use of each method alone under the same level of other pollutants. Then, several control conditions of the system were chosen and their effects to exhaust emissions were investigated under actual driving conditions, and consequently, about 50% of NOx reduction was recognized without significant increase of other pollutants by the combination of EGR at light and medium load regions and limited water injection at heavy load regions where accelerator opening is 70% or over.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
Technical Paper

Energy Regeneration of Heavy Duty Diesel Powered Vehicles

The objective of this study is to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in diesel-electric hybrid automotive powertrains by developing an exhaust gas turbine generator system which utilizes exhaust gas energy from the turbocharger waste gate. The design of the exhaust gas turbine generator was based on a conventional turbocharger for a direct-injection diesel engine. Data from steady-state bench tests using air indicates about 50% of the turbine input energy can be converted to electric energy. Turbine generator output averaged 3 kW, while a maximum of about 6 kW was observed. Based on this data, we estimate that energy consumption in a vehicle could be reduced between 5% and 10%. Engine tests were conducted under both steady-state and transient conditions. These tests revealed that optimal performance occurred under high-speed, high-load conditions, typical of highway or uphill driving, and that performance at low-speed, low-loads was relatively poor.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Dilution Process on Engine Exhaust Nano-Particles

Recently, particulate matter (PM) emission from internal combustion engines, especially particles having the diameter of less than 100 nm (Nano-particles) are being considered for their potential hazards posed to human health and the environment. Nano-particles are unstable and easily influenced by the conditions of engine operation and measurement techniques. In this study, the influences of cooling and dilution processes on nano- particles are presented to understand the generation and dilution mechanisms, and to further development of an accurate measurement method. It is found that the thermo-dilurter is necessary for measuring the nano-particles with higher accuracy. Accurate measurement of nano-particles requires immediate dilution of the exhaust gases by hot air.
Technical Paper

Influence of Thermo-Denuder Dimensions on Nano-particle Measurement

The use of a Thermo-Denuder (TD) is proposed to suppress the nano-particle measurement fluctuations caused by the volatile components in the available techniques. The problems encountered during the use of thermo-denuder for nano-particle measurement and their respective solutions are suggested. The behavior of nano-particles in the TD itself is not clearly understood but the thermo-denuder influences both the volatile and solid particles. As a first report, only the effect of TD dimension on solid nano-particle measurements is presented. It is concluded that the TD influences the nano-particles i.e. loss of particles occurs even the sample gas contains no volatile fractions. A sharp temperature gradient between the low temperature wall of the absorption part of TD and hot sample gas causes particle losses due to thermophoresis effect. Especially the smaller particles are affected significantly.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Diesel Exhaust Particle Reduction Effect and Particle Size Distribution in a Transient Cycle Mode with an Installed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

Exhaust emissions and particulate matter (PM) from an engine with a conventional continuous regeneration diesel particulate filter (DPF) were measured to evaluate DPF performance under the Japan 13-mode cycle, European Stationary Cycle and various transient cycles: U.S. transient cycle, Japan Automobile Research Institute cycle, and World-wide Heavy Duty Cycle. The emission tendencies with and without DPF under these conditions were clarified. According to these experiments, accumulated PM in the DPF under the driving modes mentioned above has influence on measurement errors. It is necessary to estimate the amount of accumulated PM in the DPF to evaluate the PM reduction rate correctly. This study also measured particle size distribution of diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) downstream of the DPF using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). As a result, we determined that most of the particles not trapped by the DPF are less than 110nm.
Technical Paper

Methane and Nitrous Oxide (N20) Emission Characteristics from Automobiles

Exhaust gases discharged from automobiles are noticed as one of the reasons for resent increase in atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, which have been considered as greenhouse effect gas. In order to make an accurate estimation of methane and nitrous oxide discharged from automobiles, measurement methods of them were experimentally developed and their emissions were measured for different kinds of automobiles under various driving conditions. Then, we have tried to estimate the annual global emissions from automobiles using these measurement results and statistical data such as the number of automobiles, the total annual mileage, and the total annual fuel consumption etc. As results, their emissions from passenger vehicles which have been estimated from global number of automobiles were 477.263 t/year for methane and 313.472 t/year for nitrous oxide. These numbers are higher than what had been estimated.
Technical Paper

Modeling Atomization and Vaporization Processes of Flash-Boiling Spray

Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
Technical Paper

N2O Emissions from Vehicles Equipped with Three-Way Catalysts in a Cold Climate

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong green house effect gas and three-way catalyst is one of the major sources. N2O is mostly emitted at temperatures during the process of light off in the catalyst and the frequency of this temperature range over total temperature range distribution affects strongly on N2O emission. The effect of cold ambient on N2O emission was analyzed based on N2O-catalyst temperature characteristics and catalyst temperature data gained by road driving test at north part of Japan in winter. As results, N2O emission may drastically increase in colder cities and winter city traffic conditions.