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Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Effects of Gas’ Methane Number on the Performance of a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0008
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of the year and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to NG spark ignition simulated lean-combustion engine operation at low speed and medium load conditions. The work investigated three NG blends with similar lower heating value (i.e., similar energy density) but different Methane Number (MN). The results indicated that a lower MN increased flame propagation speed and thus increased in-cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Common Rail HSDI Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions with Fossil / Bio-Derived Fuel Blends

2002-03-04
2002-01-0865
In order to evaluate the potentialities of bioderived diesel fuels, the effect of fueling a 1.9 l displacement HSDI automotive Diesel engine with biodiesel and fossil/biodiesel blend on its emission and combustion characteristics has been investigated. The fuels tested were a typical European diesel, a 50% biodiesel blend in the reference diesel, and a 100% biodiesel, obtained by mixing rape seed methyl ester (RME) and recycled cooking oil (CME). Steady state tests were performed at two different engine speeds (2500 and 4000 rpm), and for a wide range of loads, in order to evaluate the behavior of the fuels under a large number of operating conditions. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were analyzed, along with the combustion process in terms of heat release analysis. Experimental evidences showed appreciably lower CO and HC specific emissions and a substantial increase in NOx levels. A significant reduction of smoke emissions was also obtained.
Technical Paper

Coupled Simulation of Nozzle Flow and Spray Formation Using Diesel and Biodiesel for CI Engine Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1267
A two-step simulation methodology was applied for the computation of the injector nozzle internal flow and the spray evolution in diesel engine-like conditions. In the first step, the multiphase cavitating flow inside injector nozzle is calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulation on moving grids from needle opening to closure. A non-homogeneous Eulerian multi-fluid approach - with three phases i.e. liquid, vapor and air - has been applied. Afterward, in the second step, transient data of spatial distributions of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, void fraction and many other relevant properties at the nozzle exit were extracted and used for the subsequent Lagrangian spray calculation. A primary break-up model, which makes use of the transferred data, is used to initialize droplet properties within the hole area.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Flow Characteristics of a High Performance S.I. Engine Intake System on Test Pressure and Tumble Generation Conditions - Part 1: Experimental Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1530
In this paper an experimental analysis is carried out to evaluate the dependence of the flow characteristics in the intake system of a high performance 4 valve, Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine, on the experimental conditions at the steady flow test bench. Experimental tests are performed at different pressure levels on a Ducati Corse racing engine head, to measure the Discharge Coefficient Cd and the Tumble Coefficient NT, expanding the work already presented in a previous work by the same research group: with a new test bench, the maximum test pressure level is increased up to 24 kPa, while differently-shaped tumble adaptors are used to evaluate Nt. The study is aimed at determining the influence of the test pressure on Cd and NT measurements, and in particular of the tumble adaptor shape.
Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Solver for Primary Diesel Jet Atomization in FOAM-Extend

2019-09-09
2019-24-0128
Ongoing development of a CFD framework for the simulation of primary atomization of a high pressure diesel jet is presented in this work. The numerical model is based on a second order accurate, polyhedral Finite Volume (FV) method implemented in foam-extend-4.1, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. A geometric Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method isoAdvector is used for interface advection, while the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is used to handle the discontinuity of the pressure and the pressure gradient at the interface between the two phases: n-dodecane and air in the combustion chamber. In order to obtain highly resolved interface while minimizing computational time, an Adaptive Grid Refinement (AGR) strategy for arbitrary polyhedral cells is employed in order to refine the parts of the grid near the interface. Dynamic Load Balancing (DLB) is used in order to preserve parallel efficiency during AGR.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model for the Simulation of a Reed Valve Based Secondary Air Injection System for SI Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0224
This paper describes a research activity, carried out at the University of Perugia, focused on the modelling of an automatic reed valve in a coupled fluid-structure approach. The application here concerned is a reed device used to control a Secondary Air Injection (SAI) system which allows ambient air to enter the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalyst (useful for the reduction of emissions in rich mixture engine operating conditions). Since currently no commercial codes are still available for simulating in a comprehensive way the non-linear dynamics of a reed valve device with position constraints, the main objective of the work is the calculation of the air mass flow rate admitted to the exhaust system through the reed, by means of a slim and easy software tool. The task is accomplished by integrating two different codes, developed by the authors.
Technical Paper

Development of an Urea Supply System for the SCR Catalyst

2013-01-09
2013-26-0047
The increase in the fuel price and more stringent regulations on greenhouse gases (CO2) make the engine compression ignition technology even more attractive in the context of internal combustion engines. This is because the modern turbocharged direct injection engines, with the common rail fuel system, are characterized by high combustion efficiency and power density, that make them particularly suitable both for applications on and off road. On the other hand, the compression ignition engines are subject to a heavy technological developments to meet the more stringent regulations on emissions of exhaust pollutants, especially PM and NOx. The adopted technologies have two main approaches, on the combustion and on the exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measures applied for combustion can reduce emissions, but with the risk of penalizing the other engine performances, such as noise, power output and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray Momentum Flux in Transient Flow Conditions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2244
In the present paper, a detailed numerical and experimental analysis of a spray momentum flux measurement device capability is presented. Particular attention is devoted to transient, engine-like injection events in terms of spray momentum flux measurement. The measurement of spray momentum flux in steady flow conditions, coupled with knowledge of the injection rate, is steadily used to estimate the flow mean velocity at the nozzle exit and the extent of flow cavitation inside the nozzle in terms of a velocity reduction coefficient and a flow section reduction coefficient. In the present study, the problem of analyzing spray evolution in short injection events by means of jet momentum flux measurement was approached. The present research was based on CFD-3D analysis of the spray-target interaction in a momentum measurement device.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Diesel Spray Momentum Flux

2009-11-02
2009-01-2772
In the present work, an experimental and numerical analysis of high pressure Diesel spray evolution is carried out in terms of spray momentum flux time history and instantaneous injection rate. The final goal of spray momentum and of injection rate analyses is the evaluation of the nozzle outlet flow characteristics and of the nozzle internal geometry possible influences on cavitation phenomena, which are of primary importance for the spray evolution. Further, the evaluation of the flow characteristics at the nozzle exit is fundamental in order to obtain reliable boundary conditions for injection process 3D simulation. In this paper, spray momentum data obtained in ambient temperature, high counter-pressure conditions at the Perugia University Spray Laboratory are presented and compared with the results of 3D simulations of the momentum rig itself.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Early Flame Development Produced by a Corona Igniter

2019-10-07
2019-24-0231
In order to reduce engine emissions and fuel consumption, extensive research efforts are being devoted to develop innovative ignition devices, able to extend the stable engine operating range towards increasing lean conditions. Among these, radio frequency corona ignition systems, which produce a strong electric field at a frequency of about 1 MHz, can create discharges characterized by simultaneous thermal and kinetic effects. These devices can considerably increase the early flame growth speed, initiating the combustion process in a wide region, as opposed to the local ignition generated by traditional sparks. To explore the corona ignition behavior, experimental campaigns were carried out to investigate different operating conditions, in a constant volume calorimeter designed to measure the deposited thermal energy. The present work compares the combustion development generated by a traditional spark and the corona igniter through computational fluid dynamics simulations.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engines Retrofitted to Spark-Ignition Operation Fueled with Natural Gas

2019-09-09
2019-24-0030
Natural gas is a promising alternative gaseous fuel due to its availability, economic, and environmental benefits. A solution to increase its use in the heavy-duty transportation sector is to convert existing heavy-duty compression ignition engines to spark-ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug and injecting the natural gas inside the intake manifold. The use of numerical simulations to design and optimize the natural gas combustion in such retrofitted engines can benefit both engine efficiency and emission. However, experimental data of natural gas combustion inside a bowl-in-piston chamber is limited. Consequently, the goal of this study was to provide high-quality experimental data from such a converted engine fueled with methane and operated at steady-state conditions, exploring variations in spark timing, engine speed and equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategies Tuning for the Use of Bio-Derived Fuels in a Common Rail HSDI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0768
The potentialities in terms of engine performance and emissions reduction of pure biodiesel were examined on a Common Rail HSDI Diesel engine, trying to define a proper tuning of the injection strategies to bio-fuel characteristics. An experimental investigation was therefore carried out on a typical European passenger car Diesel engine, fuelled with a soybean oil derived biodiesel. A standard European diesel fuel was also used as a reference. In particular, the effects of an equal relative air/fuel ratio at full load condition were analysed; further, a sensitivity study on the outcome of the pilot injection timing and duration at part load on engine emissions was performed. Potentialities in recovering the performance gap between fossil fuel and biodiesel and in reducing NOx specific emissions, affecting only to a limited extent the biodiesel emission benefit in terms of CO, HC and FSN, were highlighted.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0870
This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Technical Paper

Steady and Transient Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the Tumble and Swirl Evolution on a 4V Engine with Independent Intake Valves Actuation

2008-10-06
2008-01-2392
This work aims at analyzing the fluid dynamic characteristics of a Ducati 4 valves SI engine, for racing motorcycle, during the intake and compression strokes, focusing on the correlation between steady state flow test data (experiments and simulations) and transient CFD simulation results, including the effect of variable valve actuation strategies with independent intake valve actuation. Several steady state flow test data were available in terms of maps of the discharge, tumble and swirl coefficients, at any combination of asymmetric lifts of the two intake valves. From these steady state data it can be argued that asymmetric strategies could enhance engine full load and part load operation characteristics, by exploiting favourable trade off occurring between the opposing needs for high mass flow rate and high charge motion intensity.
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