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Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on 1.4L MPFI Gasoline Engine to Study its Performance, Emission and Compatibility with E10 Fuel

Demand for cleaner, cheaper and renewable alternate fuel sources has opened a lot of new avenues in area of automotive fuels. Moving away from the existing dependency on the fossil fuels with a stress on the renewable sources and eco-friendliness has become one of the key-driver for the development. Ever increasing cost and limited availability of the fossil fuels has led many automotive manufacturers to look at alternate sources for fuel. Some important alternate fuels like biogas, vegetable oil and its esters, alcohols, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and hydrogen are rapidly finding a place in automotive applications. Ethyl alcohol popularly known as ethanol, produced from renewable energy sources like biomass has been tested extensively in internal combustion engines. Due to the high latent heat of evaporation, high octane number and high flammability temperature, ethanol has positive influence on the engine performance.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on a Diesel Engine with Hydrogen Fuel Injection in Intake Manifold

During the last decade the use of alternative fuels for diesel engine has received renewed attention. The interdependence and uncertainty of petroleum based fuel availability and environmental issues, most notably air pollution are among the principal forces behind the movement towards alternative sources of energy. The main pollutants from the conventional hydrocarbon fuels are unburned / partially burned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), smoke and particulate matter. These emissions are harmful to human, animal and plant life. Emissions from automobiles are currently a dominant source of air pollution representing 70 % of carbon monoxide, 41 % of oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 38 % of hydrocarbon emissions globally. In addition 25 % of the man made CO2 emissions globally adds to the green house effect, which results in global warming. In the present investigation hydrogen is used in a diesel engine in the dual fuel mode using diesel as an ignition source.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen Powered Three Wheeler Engine

This article is focused on the development of hydrogen fuelled engine with detailed exposure on its derivation from base Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine to discuss the phenomenon on backfiring, control strategies (to avoid knocking and backfiring) and its performance, emission characteristics. In this work, timed manifold injection system was developed to have efficient control over the fuel supply. To achieve the best performance and emission out of the engine, governing parameter like injector pulse width and ignition timing were optimized at full load, part load and idling. For comparison of the results with the same engine experiments were also conducted with base fuel CNG and gasoline using the conventional fuel supply system. It was experimentally observed that engine when fuelled with Hydrogen (H2) produces less maximum power compared to CNG and gasoline.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Fuel Injection in DI Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuel in the near future to solve greenhouse problem and to save conventional fuels. In this study, a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine was tested for its performance and emissions in dual-fuel (Hydrogen-Diesel) mode operation. Hydrogen was injected into the intake port along with air, while diesel was injected directly inside the cylinder. Hydrogen injection timing and injection duration were varied for a wider range with constant injection timing of 23° Before Injection Top Dead Centre (BITDC) for diesel fuel. When hydrogen is used as a fuel along with diesel, emissions of Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) decrease without exhausting more amount of smoke. The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 30 % at full load for the optimized injection timing of 5° After Gas Exchange Top Dead Centre (AGTDC) and for an injection duration of 90° crank angle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Port Fuel Injection with SCR in a DI Diesel Engine

Diesel engines are the main prime movers for public transportation vehicles, stationary power generation units and for agricultural applications. Hence it is very important to find a best alternate fuel, which emits fewer pollutants into the atmosphere from diesel engines. In this regard hydrogen is receiving considerable attention, as an alternative source of energy to replace the rapidly depleting petroleum resources. Its clean burning characteristics provide a strong incentive to study its utilization as a possible alternate fuel. Hydrogen injection along with selective catalytic converter shows very attractive results both from the performance and emissions point of view. A maximum reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 74% is achieved for a (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. The reduction in both hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emission is one of the major advantages of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of DI Diesel Engine with Hydrogen Fuel

The internal combustion engines, have already, become an indispensable and integral part of our present day life style, particularly in the transportation and agricultural sectors. Unfortunately the survival of these engines has, of late, been threatened due to the problems of fuel crisis and environmental pollution. Therefore, to sustain the present growth rate of civilization, a non-depletable, clean fuel must be expeditiously sought. Hydrogen exactly caters to the specified needs. Hydrogen, even though “Renewable” and “clean burning”, does give rise to some undesirable combustion problems in an engine operation, such as backfire, pre-ignition, knocking and rapid rate of pressure rise. The present investigation compares the performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine with gaseous Hydrogen as a fuel inducted by means of Carburation and Timed Port Injection (TPI) techniques along with diesel as a source of ignition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Dual Fuel DI Diesel Engine with Hydrogen Fuel

Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternate fuels due to its clean burning characteristics and better performance as compared to fossil fuels. In addition to the need for finding effective solutions to the problem of air pollution from combustion processes, increasing pressure is being placed to find alternative fuel to replace the rapidly depleting petroleum fuels. Numerous research works have been carried out on using hydrogen as a fuel in Spark Ignition (SI) engine. However the major drawback of using hydrogen in a SI engine is the reduction in power output of the engine by about 30% in addition to problems like pre ignition, back fire and knocking at higher loads. Hence the use of hydrogen in a SI engine is limited.
Journal Article

Performance and Emission Characterization of 1.2L MPI Engine with Multiple Fuels (E10, LPG and CNG)

Most of the energy consumed in today's mobility industry is derived from fossil fuels. The demand for clean, renewable and affordable alternative energy is forcing the automotive industry to look beyond the conventional fossil fuels. Fuels options like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and ethanol blends are quickly finding widespread acceptance as alternative sources. This paper presents the results of experimental studies conducted on a 1.2-liter MPI engine with three different alternate fuels. The fuels considered for the evaluation (apart from base gasoline) are 10% ethanol-blended fuel (E10), LPG (gaseous propane: butane mix) and CNG (gaseous methane). Experiments were conducted to compare their effect on engine performance and emissions. The test results show that E10 has the lowest power drop whereas CNG has the highest power drop (12%) as compared to gasoline. The maximum power drop in LPG is 4%, which is close to the theoretical predictions.