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Technical Paper

Alternative Fuels: Assessment of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel for Military Use in 6.5L Diesel Engine

As the U.S. Military considers fuel sources around the world and into the future, fuels produced via non-conventional means are anticipated to become increasingly available and of growing importance. One such type of fuel, a synthetic fuel, can be produced from conversion processes employing Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and starting with natural gas, coal or biomass feed stocks. The Single Fuel Forward (SFF or single fuel in the battlefield) policy requires the use of JP-8, JP-5 or Jet A-1. Evaluations of F-T fuels, such as synthetic JP-8, in military ground vehicles, aircraft, associated equipment, and fuel storage and distribution systems is needed to assess ability to meet desired and/or required operational performance and to identify potential issues, as well as potential benefits, with the introduction and use of these fuels.
Technical Paper


Crude oils with a wide range of properties were investigated for direct use as fuel in U. S. Army high-speed four-cycle diesel engines. Crude oil properties were divided into two groups; 1. those properties which would be of importance for short-term operational effects, and 2. those properties whose effects would manifest during longer-term operation. Effects of crude oil use on engine subsystem hardware such as fuel filters and fuel injection pumps were investigated. Performance and combustion data were determined using pre-cup and direct injection configurations of the single cylinder CLR diesel engine operating on various crude oils. Performance data, wear and deposition effects of crude oil use were obtained using the TACOM single cylinder diesel engine. Results of this investigation showed that a wide range of crude oils with proper selection and pretreatment are feasible emergency energy sources for U. S. Army four-cycle high-speed diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of High-Temperature Diesel Engine Liquid Lubricants

High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as a tool for HTL evaluation. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247°C and an oil sump temperature of 166°C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired.
Technical Paper

Extended Expansion Engine with Mono-Shaft Cam Mechanism for Higher Efficiency - Layout Study and Numerical Investigations of a Twin Engine

The automotive industry has made great efforts in reducing fuel consumption. The efficiency of modern spark ignition (SI) engines has been increased by improving the combustion process and reducing engine losses such as friction, gas exchange and wall heat losses. Nevertheless, further efficiency improvement is indispensable for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the smart usage of available energy. In the previous years the Atkinson Cycle, realized over the crank train and/or valve train, is attracting considerable interest of several OEMs due to the high theoretical efficiency potential. In this publication a crank train-based Atkinson cycle engine is investigated. The researched engine, a 4-stroke 2 cylinder V-engine, basically consists of a special crank train linkage system and a novel Mono-Shaft valve train concept.
Technical Paper

Insulated Miller Cycle Diesel Engine

This paper investigates theoretically the benefits of the Miller cycle diesel engine with and without low heat rejection on thermodynamic efficiency, brake power, and fuel consumption. It further illustrates the effectiveness of thin thermal barrier coatings to improve the performance of military and commercial IC engines. A simple model which includes a friction model is used to estimate the overall improvement in engine performance. Miller cycle is accomplished by closing the intake valve late and the engine components are coated with PSZ for low heat rejection. A significant improvement in brake power and thermal efficiency are observed.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Evaluation of Army Multiviscosity Grade Tactical Engine Oils

Several multiviscosity grade oils were subjected to a special 240-hour endurance test procedure in an Army high-output two-cycle diesel engine, and certain of the oils were laboratory tested in the Army's multifuel, four-cycle compression ignition engine and in the Army's air-cooled four-cycle diesel tank engine. Certain of the lubricants were also subjected to standard hydraulic/power transmission tests because acceptable power transmission performance will now be a formal requirement in the D-revision to the engine lubricant specification MIL-L-2104. Parallel to these laboratory evaluations, pilot field tests were conducted in combat/tactical vehicles (engines and power shift transmissions) at three Army bases. The limited field tests indicated that the use of arctic/conventional multiviscosity grade lubricants at ambient temperatures up to 38°C(100°F) may be possible, and their introduction under MIL-L-2104 should be pursued.
Technical Paper

Multi-Layer Stratified (MuLS) Two-Stroke Engine

The mandatory emission regulations coupled with market demands have resulted in the development of innovative engine technologies at lower costs for consumer applications. For example, the low cost two-stroke engines for hand-held applications have evolved from high specific output, high emission designs to lower emission engine architectures that meet today's EPA and CARB emission standards. Emissions and fuel consumption have reduced significantly, particularly in non-catalyzed engines. This paper highlights the design features of a Multi-Layered Stratified (MuLS) engine that has demonstrated the ability to meet the current emission standards without the catalyst. The Multi-Layer scavenging system consists of stratified layers of pure air, lean air-fuel mixture, and rich air-fuel mixture that are inducted separately and delivered in sequence into the combustion chamber through ports for minimizing the scavenging loss of the unburned fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Alcohol Fuels and Fully Formulated Lubricants on Engine Wear

An investigation of the effects of alcohol fuels and lubricant formulations on spark ignition engine wear and deposition was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command. Tests were conducted using neat methanol, anhydrous ethanol, and alcohol blends as fuel in a 2.3-liter engine using a modified ASTM Sequence V-D test procedure. This dynamometer testing indicates that alcohol fuels reduce the buildup of engine deposits. Also, it was found that neat methanol greatly increases engine wear rates while anhydrous ethanol and alcohol-gasoline blends do not increase wear rates over that of unleaded gasoline. A 20-hour steady-state test was developed which shows that engine wear is inversely related to engine oil temperature when using methanol as fuel. The study shows that one lubricant appears to best control methanol-related engine wear, but still not to acceptable levels.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Lubricant Composition on S.I. Engine Wear With Alcohol Fuels

An investigation of the effects of lubricant composition changes on spark ignition engine wear and deposits when using alcohol fuel was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command. In the work covered by this paper, tests were conducted with methanol fuel in a 2.3-liter engine using a modified ASTM Sequence V-D procedure. The baseline lubricant was a 10W-30 grade product, qualified under MIL-L-46152, for which a large amount of field and laboratory data were available. Eleven variations of the baseline lubricant were supplied and tested. The results indicate that a magnesium-based detergent additive was less effective in controlling methanol-related engine wear than was a calcium-based additive. Ashless dispersant chemistry was also determined to be of importance in controlling wear with methanol fuel.
Technical Paper

U.S. Army Evaluation of NATO Multi-graded Engine Oils

This paper discusses the United States effort in a cooperative NATO program investigating the performance characteristics of multigraded engine oils. Seven lubricants (one Grade 10W-30 oil, five Grade 15W-40 oils, and a 20W-40 oil) were evaluated using the diesel engine performance tests required for qualification of MIL-L-2104D engine oils. Two test oils (one Grade 15W-40 oil and the Grade 20 W-40 oil) met the 1G2 four-cycle diesel performance established for MIL-L-2104D specification. Three products (two Grade 15W-40 oils and the Grade 20W-40 oil) demonstrated acceptable 6V-53T, two-cycle, diesel performance. However, only the Grade 20W-40 oil showed acceptable performance in both tests. Based on the results of the program, one conclusion is that multigraded 15W-40 and 20W-40 oils have the capability to demonstrate acceptable diesel engine performance as defined by the MIL-L-2104D engine specification.