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Technical Paper

A Configuration for a Continuously Variable Power-Split Transmission in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Applications

Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are usually used in small vehicles due to power limitations on the variable elements. Continuously variable power-split transmissions (CVPST) were developed in order to reduce the fraction of power passing through the variable elements [1,2]. The configuration presented in this paper includes a planetary gear train (PGT), which in combination with the CVT allows the power to be split and therefore increase the power envelope of the system. The PGT also provides a branch that can be used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) operation through an electric motor. A conceptual design of a CVPST for a HEV is presented in this paper. The objectives are to show the different operational modes, with diagrams, perform a power analysis, develop the velocity and force equations and finally show the performance of the system with an example application.
Technical Paper

A Study of Emissions from CNG and Diesel Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

The West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was employed to conduct chassis dynamometer tests in the field to measure the exhaust emissions from heavy-duty buses and trucks. This laboratory began operation in the field in January, 1992. During the period January, 1992 through June, 1993, over 150 city buses, trucks, and tractors operated by 18 different authorities in 11 states were tested by the facility. The tested vehicles were powered by 14 different types of engines fueled with natural gas (CNG or LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), #2 diesel, and low sulfur diesel (#1 diesel or Jet A). Some of the tested vehicles were equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems. In this paper, a total of 12 CNG-fueled and #2 diesel-fueled transit buses equipped with Cummins L-10 engines, were chosen for investigation.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project - Design and Preliminary Results

The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. This paper summarizes the design of the project and early results from the first two sites. Data collection is planned for operations, maintenance, truck system descriptions, emissions, duty cycle, safety incidents, and capital costs and operating costs associated with the use of alternative fuels in trucking.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Journal Article

An Empirical Approach in Determining the Effect of Road Grade on Fuel Consumption from Transit Buses

Transit buses contribute a meager amount to the U.S. criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, but they attract a lot of attention from the public and from local government, due to their nature of operation. Transit bus fleets are often employed for the introduction of advanced heavy-duty vehicle technology and the formulation of new performance models. Emissions and fuel consumption data, gained using a chassis dynamometer, are often used to evaluate performance of these buses. However, the effect of road grade on fuel consumption and emissions most often is not accounted for in chassis dynamometer characterization. Grade effect on transit buses' fuel consumption was investigated using the road-load equation. It was observed that two parameters, including the type of terrain that buses traverse and the percentage of grade for that terrain, needed to be determined for this investigation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Emissions Reduction Performance of an SCR System Over Two Years' In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Operation

Increasingly stringent oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) regulations worldwide have prompted considerable activity in developing emission control technology to reduce the emissions of these two constituents from heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx has come under particular scrutiny by regulators in the US and in Europe with the promulgation of very stringent regulation by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU). In response, heavy-duty engine manufacturers are considering Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as a potential NOx reduction option. While SCR performance has been well established through engine dynamometer evaluation under laboratory conditions, there exists little data characterizing SCR performance under real-world operating conditions over time. This project evaluated the field performance of ten SCR units installed on heavy-duty Class 8 highway and refuse trucks.
Technical Paper

Assessment of NOx Destruction in Diesel Engines by Injecting NO in the Intake Manifold

Emissions from diesel engines, particularly NOx and TPM emissions are harmful to the environment. Reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines is of increasing concern. In 1998, a novel approach called Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) was used to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. The SNR concept relies on two major parts, one to collect the NOx emissions from the exhaust by an adsorber, and another to decompose NOx using the in-cylinder combustion process by injecting the collected NOx emissions into the intake manifold at an elevated concentration. This paper deals with the destruction rates during the combustion process. A 1992 DDC series 60, 350 hp, 12.7 liter engine was connected to a 500 hp DC dynamometer. A full-scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring continuous NOx, CO2, CO, HC, and PM in the exhaust were used.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Blend Emissions of a 2007 Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Truck

Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel (PD). Emissions differences between vehicles operated on biodiesel blends and on diesel have been published previously, but data do not cover the latest engine technologies. Prior studies have shown that biodiesel offers advantages in reducing particulate matter, with either no advantage or a slight disadvantage for oxides of nitrogen emissions. This paper describes a recent study on the emissions impact of two biodiesel blends B20A, made from 20% animal fat (tallow) biodiesel and 80% PD, and B20B, obtained from 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% PD. These blends used the same PD fuel for blending and were contrasted with the same PD fuel as a reference. The research was conducted on a 2007 medium heavy-duty diesel truck (MHDDT), with an engine equipped with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Celebrating the Exclaim!

West Virginia University redesigned a 2002 Ford Explorer and created a diesel electric hybrid vehicle to satisfy the goals of the 2002 FutureTruck competition. These goals were to demonstrate a 25% improvement in fuel economy, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve California ULEV emissions, to demonstrate 1/8-mile acceleration of 11.5 seconds or less, and to maintain vehicular comforts and performance. West Virginia University's 2002 hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV), the Exclaim!, meets or exceeds these goals. Using a post-transmission parallel configuration, WVU integrated a 2.5L Detroit Diesel Corporation engine along with a Unique Mobility 75kW electric motor to replace the stock drivetrain. With an emphasis on maintaining performance, WVU strived to improve areas where SUVs have traditionally performed poorly: fuel economy and emissions. Using regenerative braking, fuel economy has been significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Abatement of Diesel Crankcase Emissions

In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency will begin measuring not only exhaust emissions from diesel engines, but also emissions from the crankcase if it is not vented into the engine intake. The 2007 government standards for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) will also become more restrictive. There is the additional concern that crankcase emissions from present day trucks and buses may impact the quality of air inside the vehicle. This paper presents data to characterize crankcase emissions and examines a crankcase emissions abatement system (CEAS), the New Condensator®, manufactured by World NCI. Rather than allowing crankcase emissions to leave via a vent tube, a CEAS re-circulates the emissions to the intake of the engine.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Transit Buses

Hybrid-electric transit buses offer benefits over conventional transit buses of comparable capacity. These benefits include reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and the utilization of smaller engines. Factors allowing for these benefits are the use of regenerative braking and reductions in engine transient operation through sophisticated power management systems. However, characterization of emissions from these buses represents new territory: the whole vehicle must be tested to estimate real world tailpipe emissions levels and fuel economy. The West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories were used to characterize emissions from diesel hybrid-electric powered as well as diesel and natural gas powered transit buses in Boston, MA and New York City.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emission Measurements from Trucks and Buses using Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engines

Emissions from trucks and buses equipped with Caterpillar dual-fuel natural gas (DFNG) engines were measured at two chassis dynamometer facilities: the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Laboratory and the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA MTA). Emissions were measured over four different driving cycles. The average emissions from the trucks and buses using DFNG engines operating in dual-fuel mode showed the same trends in all tests - reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions - when compared to similar diesel trucks and buses. The extent of NOx reduction was dependent on the type of test cycle used.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: Regulated Emissions

Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years

Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation.
Technical Paper

Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR

With continuously increasing concern for the emissions from two-stroke engines including regulated hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, non-road engines are implementing proven technologies from the on-road market. For example, four stroke diesel generators now include additional internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) via an intake/exhaust valve passage. EGR can offer benefits of reduced HC, NOx, and may even improve combustion stability and fuel efficiency. In addition, there is particular interest in use of natural gas as fuel for home power generation. This paper examines exhaust throttling applied to the Helmholtz resonator of a two-stroke, port injected, natural gas engine. The 34 cc engine was air cooled and operated at wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions at an engine speed of 5400 RPM with fueling adjusted to achieve maximum brake torque. Exhaust throttling served as a method to decrease the effective diameter of the outlet of the convergent cone.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study of PM and NOx for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Across Multiple Drive Schedules

When heavy-duty truck emissions are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), the values may depend strongly on the nature of the test cycle or schedule. Prior studies have compared emissions gained using different schedules and have proposed techniques for translating emissions factor rates between schedules. This paper reviews emissions data from the 5-mode CARB HHDDT Schedule, UDDS Schedule, and a steady-state cycle (AC5080), with reference to each other. NOX and PM emissions are the two components of emissions which are reviewed. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 30,000 lbs, 56,000 lbs, and 66,000 lbs. For each vehicle, average data from one mode or cycle have been compared with average data for a different mode or cycle.
Journal Article

Crankcase Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines

In 2007, US EPA implemented the rule that the crankcase emissions be added to the tailpipe emissions to determine the total emissions from a diesel engine if the crankcase were not closed, but few data exist to quantify crankcase emissions from earlier model diesel engines. This paper presents the results of a study on the measurement of the size distribution and number concentration of particulate matter (PM) emitted from the crankcase vents from four different diesel engines under different engine speeds and loads. The engines used in the study were a 1992 Detroit Diesel Series 60, a 1996 Caterpillar 3406E, a 1997 Cummins B5.9 and a 1995 Mack E7-400. The Detroit Diesel engine was tested on an engine dynamometer and crankcase and tailpipe particulates were observed at varying engine speeds and loads. The other three engines were mounted in vehicles, and crankcase PM was observed at several engine speeds with no external load.
Technical Paper

Creation and Evaluation of a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck Test Cycle

The California Air Resources Board (ARB) developed a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck (MHDT) schedule by selecting and joining microtrips from real-world MHDT. The MHDT consisted of three modes; namely, a Lower Speed Transient, a Higher Speed Transient, and a Cruise mode. The maximum speeds of these modes were 28.9, 58.2 and 66.0 mph, respectively. Each mode represented statistically selected truck behavior patterns in California. The MHDT is intended to be applied to emissions characterization of trucks (14,001 to 33,000lb gross vehicle weight) exercised on a chassis dynamometer. This paper presents the creation of the MHDT and an examination of repeatability of emissions data from MHDT driven through this schedule. Two trucks were procured to acquire data using the MHDT schedule. The first, a GMC truck with an 8.2-liter Isuzu engine and a standard transmission, was tested at laden weight (90% GVW, 17,550lb) and at unladen weight (50% GVW, 9,750lb).
Technical Paper

Development and Initial Use of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Test Schedule for Emissions Characterization

In characterizing the emissions from mobile sources, it is essential that the vehicle be exercised in a way that reasonably represents typical in-use behavior. A heavy-heavy duty diesel truck (HHDDT) test schedule was developed from speed-time data gathered during two Air Resources Board-sponsored truck activity programs. The data were divided into four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise Modes, in order of increasing speed. For the last three modes, speed-time schedules were created that represented all the data in that mode. Statistical parameters such as average speed, stops per unit distance, kinetic energy, maximum speed and acceleration and deceleration values were considered in arriving at these schedules. The schedules were evaluated using two Class 8 over-the-road tractors on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions were measured using a full-scale dilution tunnel, filtration for particulate matter (PM), and research grade analyzers for the gases.