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Technical Paper

Control System for Diesel-Ethanol Engines

2010-10-06
2010-36-0161
Worldwide research on alternative fuels has been intensified due to environmental concern and diminishing of conventional fossil fuels reserves. In Brazil, the usage of fossil fuel for the production of sugar cane has been improved over the years, but there still room for improvements. It is estimated that for 1 ton of processed sugar cane about 2 liters of diesel fuel is used. Over the last year, a fleet of around 110,000 agricultural machines and trucks burned about 1.2 billion liters of diesel. Along with the opportunity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases there is also an economic advantage of using ethanol because it cost the producer about half the price of the diesel fuel. The reasons above motivated us to develop a diesel-ethanol control for diesel engines using a mechanical diesel injection pumps. An add-on system was developed using an ECM used for passenger vehicles to control engines with either 4 or 6 cylinders.
Technical Paper

Engine Management for MultiFuel® plus Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles

2005-11-22
2005-01-4094
Brazil launched the Ethanol vehicle program in 1979. The production raised to more than 80% and declined to low values due to Ethanol shortage problems. In 2000 E100 usage was fostered again and Delphi developed the Multifuel® System where the vehicle could use fuels with any ethanol percentage. The production of Multifuel vehicles reached 35% and is increasing. Besides that Brazil is experiencing an abundance of CNG. CNG converted vehicles normally use a second ECM, however the performance isn't optimal. In 2004 Delphi developed a MultiFuel-CNG system with one ECM controlling both fuels with little power loss and excellent driveability and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Engine Manangement for Flex Fuel plus Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles

2005-10-24
2005-01-3777
Ethanol has been used in Brazil as a passenger vehicle fuel since 1979. Until the year 2000, vehicles were made to run exclusively with either gasoline or ethanol. The MultiFuel® engine control module (ECM) was developed allowing vehicles to use fuels with any ethanol percentage, relying only on the existing oxygen sensor as opposed to an add-on ethanol sensor for the percent ethanol evaluation. The use of tank fuel level information allowed for far more robust ethanol percent detection and improved driveability. Four years later, compressed natural gas (CNG) capability was integrated into the MultiFuel® technology. Prior to that, vehicles using CNG normally required a second ECM; however, the performance wasn't always optimal. The MultiFuel® integrated with CNG capability is known as the Tri-Fuel system. It uses only one ECM, seamlessly controlling both liquid (ethanol blends and gasoline) and CNG fuels with little power loss, and excellent driveability and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Engine Management for Small Motorcycles

2007-11-28
2007-01-2729
In Brazil the market for small motorcycles had steadily increased during the last decade. Nowadays more than a 1.5 million units are produced every year. Market forecasts show that this trend will remain for many years. The amount of pollutant gases emitted by the small motorcycles fleet, begin to be significant. For this reason, the government established emissions laws for motorcycles to be effective since 2003. This law will become stricter over the years up to the point that the use of electronic fuel injection systems for small motorcycles will be a convenient way to adhere to the law. The cost of ethanol fuel is almost half of the gasoline and therefore is the fuel of choice of the majority of drivers. Moreover the use of ethanol is far better than gasoline in terms of emission of green house effect gases. The current motorcycle's fuel delivery systems are not suited to use ethanol.
Technical Paper

Heated Injector Cold Start System for Flex-Fuel Motorcycles

2010-10-06
2010-36-0156
Nowadays more than a million and half motorcycles are produced every year. In the metropolitan areas, the amount of pollutant gases emitted by the small motorcycles, begin to be significant. For this reason, the Brazilian government established emissions laws for motorcycles to be effective since 2003. Historically, the cost of ethanol fuel is almost half of the gasoline and therefore is the fuel of choice of the majority of drivers. Moreover the use of ethanol is far better than gasoline in terms of emission of greenhouse effect gases. In 2009, flex-fuel motorcycles began to be sold to the public. As they lack a proper cold start system, when using only hydrous ethanol fuel (E100) and the ambient temperature is lower than 15 degrees Celsius, the motorcycle is difficult to start and does not have a good driveability. As mitigation action, the maker's advice is to fill the tank with at least 20% gasoline. This poses an inconvenience to the driver and avoids the optimal fuel cost.
Technical Paper

New Flex Fuel Management and Components for Motorcycles

2008-10-07
2008-36-0227
In Brazil the market for small motorcycles had steadily increased during the last decade. Nowadays about 2 million units are produced every year. Market forecasts show that this trend will remain for many years. The amount of pollutant gases emitted by the small motorcycles fleet, begin to be significant. For this reason, the government established emissions laws for motorcycles to be effective since 2003. This law will become stricter over the years up to the point that the use of electronic fuel injection systems for small motorcycles will be a convenient way to adhere to the law. The cost of ethanol fuel is almost half of the gasoline and therefore is the fuel of choice of the majority of drivers. Moreover the use of ethanol is far better than gasoline in terms of emission of green house effect gases. The current motorcycle's fuel delivery systems are not suited to use ethanol.
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