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Technical Paper

Audit of Fuel Utilisation During the Warm-Up of SI Engines

Experimental studies of fuel utilisation during the early stages of engine warm-up after cold-starts are reported. The investigation has been carried out on a 1.81, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine with port electronic fuel injection. The relationship between fuel supplied and fuel accounted for by the analysis of exhaust gas composition shows that a significant mass of fuel supplied is temporarily stored or permanently lost. An interpretation of data is made which allows time-dependent variations of these to be separately resolved and estimates of fuel quantities made. The data covers a range of cold-start conditions down to -5°C at which, on a per cylinder basis, fuel stored peaks typically at around 0.75g and a total of 1g is returned over 100 seconds of engine running. Fuel lost past the piston typically accounts for 2g over 200 to 300 seconds of running.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion

An experimental study has been carried out to explore what limits fuel injection and EGR strategies when trying to run a PCCI-type mode of combustion on an engine with current generation hardware. The engine is a turbocharged V6 DI diesel with (1600 bar) HPCR fuel injection equipment and a cooled external EGR system. The variables examined have been the split and timings of fuel injections and the level of EGR; the responses investigated have been ignition delay, heat release, combustion noise, engine-out emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. Although PCCI-type combustion strategies can be effective in reducing NOx and soot emissions, it proved difficult to achieve this without either a high noise or a fuel economy penalty.
Technical Paper

DISI Engine Spark and Fuel Injection Timings. Effects, Compromise and Robustness

DISI engine emissions and fuel economy are strongly dependent upon fuel injection and spark timings, particularly when the engine is operating in stratified charge mode. Experimental studies of the effects of injection and spark timings and the interaction between these are described. The sensitivity of HC and NOx emissions to timings during stratified charge operation, the comparison of performance under stratified and homogeneous charge modes of operation and the rationale for mode switch point settings are investigated. The high sensitivity of emissions to injection and spark timing settings gives rise to potential robustness issues. These are described.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Fuel Transport and Emissions: The Influence of Injector Type and Fuel Composition

Experimental studies have been carried out on a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection to examine the influence of injector type and to contrast this with the effects of fuel composition. Intake port fuel transport characteristics and engine-out emissions for fully-warm and warm-up engine operating conditions have been examined as indicators of performance. The investigation has encompassed four types of injector and five gasoline blends. Fuel transport has been characterised using the τ and X parameters. The influence of injector type on these is of similar significance as that of changes in gasoline composition between summer and winter grades. The latter will limit the in-service accuracy of open-loop mixture control during transients. Injector type has a small effect on engine-out emissions under fully-warm operating conditions but has a significant influence on emissions during the early stages of warm-up.
Journal Article

Investigating the Effects of Multiple Pilot Injections on Stability at Cold Idle for a Dl Diesel Engine

An experimental investigation of combustion cycle-by-cycle stability under cold idling conditions has been carried out on a Dl diesel to examine the influence of pilot fuel injection strategy. The engine is a single cylinder variant of a multi-cylinder design meeting Euro 4 emissions requirements. The engine build had a swept volume of 500cc and a compression ratio of 18.4:1. Work output and heat release characteristics have been investigated at test temperatures of 10, 0, −10 and −20°C and speeds in the range from 600 to 1400rpm. At the lowest temperature, −20°C, stability is sensitive to the timing of main injection and is prone to deteriorate with increasing engine speed. The influence of the number of pilot injections and pilot fuel quantity on stability has been explored. Best stability was achieved by increasing the number of pilot injections as temperature is lowered, from one at 10°C to two at −10°C and between two and four at −20°C.
Technical Paper

Simulation Studies of the Effect of Fuel Injection Pattern on NO and Soot Formation in Diesel Engines

Kiva-3v Release 2 has been used to investigate combustion and emissions formation processes in a direct injection diesel engine with a high pressure common rail injection system. The influence of split main ratio and separation on NO and soot emissions have been of particular interest. Model validation has been based on comparisons with experimental data for heat release and engine-out emissions. Simulations have been carried out to explore the temporal development of combustion processes under typical part-load operating conditions. The results presented are for an engine speed and BMEP of 1600 rev/min and 6.76 bar, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pilot and Split-Main Injection Parameters on Diesel Emissions and Fuel Consumption

The paper outlines experimental investigations of fuel injection strategies which are possible using high pressure common rail fuel injection systems. Strategies using a split main with a pilot injection have been explored. The strategy variables were the ratio of the first to second part of the main, the separation between these and the timing of the start of main injection. Exhaust gas recirculation rate was a fourth variable. Pilot injection quantity and timing, and rail pressure were held constant. The influence on emissions and specific fuel consumption is described and the method of optimising settings is outlined. The manipulation of fuel injection settings to best meet optimisation targets for emissions and specific fuel consumption is described. The benefits compared to results for optimised single main injection are described, as are issues of strategy robustness.