Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 6 of 6
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Exhaust Pipe, Dilution Tunnel and Roadside Diesel Particulate SOF and Gaseous Hydrocarbon Emissions

The solvent organic fraction (SOF) of particulates from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, a dilution tunnel and a roadside sample are compared. Three different techniques of SOF analysis are also compared, vacuum oven, solvent extraction and pyroprobe/GC. Gaseous hydrocarbons and the methane contribution were measured in the exhaust pipe throughout the speed and load range of the engine at 185 C and 2 C. The unburnt hydrocarbons decreased with air/fuel ratio for all speeds and there was an overall decrease in emissions with increasing speed. The differential temperature technique showed the maximum mass of hydrocarbon which could condense from the gas phase onto the particulate as the SOF. The method compared well with the actual SOF of the tunnel particulate.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Dilution and Particulate Absorption Contamination in Used Lubricating Oil

Lubricating oil taken from the sump of a direct injection diesel engine has been analysed for the concentration of hydrocarbon contamination over a period of time. The oil was filtered and the sediment SOF analysed together with the filtrate. The results showed that there was an increase in the contamination in the used oil for both the filtrate and sediment hydrocarbon contamination. The carbon number distribution of the filtrate and sediment SOF were different. The filtrate representing contamination of the oil by fuel dilution and the sediment SOF contamination by particulates adsorbed into the oil in the combustion chamber. The highest contribution to the hydrocarbon contamination of the oil was from the filtrate in the early ageing period with an increasing contribution from the SOF of the sediment.
Technical Paper

The Aging of Lubricating Oil, The Influence of Unburnt Fuel and Particulate SOF Contamination

The role of lubricating oil as a sink for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) and alkanes derived from unburnt fuel is described for two different oils used in two different DI diesel engines. The diesel engines used were, an older technology Petter AV1 single cylinder mine pumping engine and a Perkins 4.236 current technology engine. Analysis of the oil was by gas chromatography using simultaneous parallel triple detection, allowing analysis of hydrocarbons and nitrogen and sulphur containing compounds. Analysis of unused lubricating oil showed negligible concentrations of PAC and low molecular weight alkanes (< C20). The oil from each engine was analysed periodically during use and showed a rapid and significant accumulation of hydrocarbons which reached significant concentrations after only 10 hours use. The older technology engine showed a much higher accumulation rate.
Technical Paper

The Influence Of Diesel Fuel Composition On Particulate PAH Emissions

The objective was to investigate PAH emissions in diesel particulates using two diesel fuels with different PAH content. Class A2 diesel from two different refinery sources were analysed for PAH and there were significant difference in the concentration of the 3 and 4 ring PAH of importance in particulate PAH emissions. One fuel had at least 20 times the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) of the other. A mass balance between the fuel PAH input to the engine and the particulate PAH emissions was carried out. A similar mass balance was also carried out between the equivalent boiling point n-alkane fuel and particulate SOF, which determined how that distillation fraction of the fuel behaved in the engine. One of the fuels had a higher survivability of high MW n-alkanes and this was also reflected in the PAH emissions. The fuel with high BaP had BaP emissions entirely consistent with an unburned fuel source.
Technical Paper

The Role of Lubricating Oil in Diesel Particulate and Particulate PAH Emissions

The role of lubricating oil in total particulate emmissions and in terms of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) associated with the solvent organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate are investigated. Analysis of unused lubricating oil shows negligible concentrations of PAC. Used lubricating oil from a modified Perkins 4.236 Diesel engine, showed significant concentrations of PAC had accumulated in the oil in the form of PAC from unburnt fuel. Analysis of the oil was by gas chromatography using simultaneous parallel triple detection, allowing analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen containing PAH (PANH) and sulphur containing PAH (PASH). Motoring the engine in the absence of fuel enabled the contribution of lubricating oil to the exhaust particulate and particulate PAC emission to be determined.
Technical Paper

The influence of PAH contamination of Lubricating Oil on Diesel Particulate PAH Emissions

The influence of contamination of lubricating oil on the emissions of total particulate, particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and unburnt fuel and gaseous emissions have been investigated for a modified Perkins 4.236 D.I. diesel engine. The emissions during fuel firing and motoring in the absence of fuel are compared. The results showed that the exhaust particulate during both firing and motoring were not affected by lubricating oil contamination. Emission of PAH during fuel firing and motoring increase with oil contamination which in turn reflects the build up of PAH with oil age. Some of the particulate PAH are biologically active. The contribution of oil derived PAH increase with age. Comparison of the gaseous emissions during fuel firing and during motoring also showed an increase in UHC with age of lubricating oil.