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Technical Paper

Cold Start Emissions Investigation at Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

A vital question for car manufacturers in countries where the temperature over night falls below freezing, is the significant increase of CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emissions during the start and warm-up of spark ignition engines. ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) (UDC) (Urban Driving Cycle) cycles, divided into elementary phases, have been used to determine the level of harmful CO and HC emissions and fuel consumption in the cold start and warm up phase. Tests were undertaken on cars conditioned in temperatures ranging from +22°C to -15°C have shown significant increases in CO and HC as the temperature decreases.
Technical Paper

Euro III / Euro IV Emissions - A Study of Cold Start and Warm Up Phases with a SI (Spark Ignition) Engine

The European driving cycle, deleting the first 40 seconds of idle after the start up phase, and the US FTP 75 cycle are compared in this paper. The paper presents an analysis of emission tests for CO, HC and NOx measured during tests performed on a chassis dynamometer under laboratory conditions. The tests are reviewed and the results discussed. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the test cycle on the measured emission of CO, HC and NOx, and the changes of fuel consumption at the initial phase of engine operation. Differences in catalyst warm up rates when running NEDC, ECE + EUDC and FTP 75 cycles are demonstrated. Methods of reduction in these harmful emissions and the results of tests with new technologies targeted at the reduction of CO, HC and NOx under cold start are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Excess Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Modern Spark Ignition Passenger Cars at Low Ambient Temperatures

Cold starts are demanding events for spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. When the temperatures of the engine oil, coolant and the engine block are close to the ambient temperature, start-up can be difficult to achieve without fuel enrichment, which results in significant excesses in exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In general, the lower the ambient temperature, the more substantial these problems are. Many nations frequently experience sub-zero ambient temperatures, and the European Union (among others) has specified an emissions test at low ambient temperature (-7°C). Passenger cars typically experience one to two cold start events per day, and so both cold starts and the warm-up period that follows are significant in terms of exhaust emissions. This paper examines emissions at low ambient temperatures with a special focus on cold start; emissions are also compared to start-up at a higher ambient temperature (24°C).
Technical Paper

Investigations into Particulate Emissions from Euro 5 Passenger Cars with DISI Engines Tested at Multiple Ambient Temperatures

Particulate matter in vehicular exhaust is now under great scrutiny. In the EU, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines running on petrol now have limits for particulate emissions set for both mass and number. Current legislative test procedures represent a best-case scenario - more aggressive driving cycles and lower ambient temperatures can increase particulate emissions massively. Ambient temperature is generally the environmental parameter of most importance regarding particulate emissions from an engine, particularly for the reasonably brief periods of operation typical for passenger cars operating from a cold start. Two Euro 5 vehicles with DI SI engines were laboratory tested at three ambient temperatures on two different commercially available fuels, with particulate emissions results compared to results from the same fuels when the vehicles were tested at 25°C.
Journal Article

Low Ambient Temperature Cold Start Emissions of Gaseous and Solid Pollutants from Euro 5 Vehicles featuring Direct and Indirect Injection Spark-Ignition Engines

Spark ignition (SI) engines are susceptible to excess emissions at low ambient temperatures. Direct injection leads to the formation of particulate matter (PM), and direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study compares excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants following cold start at a low ambient temperature and the standard test temperature. Euro 5 passenger cars were tested on a chassis dynamometer within BOSMAL's climate-controlled test chamber, according to European Union legislation (−7°C over the urban driving cycle (UDC), and at 25°C). Two vehicles were also tested over the entire New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emissions of regulated compounds and carbon dioxide were analyzed; particulate emissions (both mass and number) were also measured, all using standard procedures.
Journal Article

Particulate Emissions from European Vehicles Featuring Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Tested Under Laboratory Conditions

Direct injection gasoline engines have been gaining popularity for passenger car applications, particularly in the EU. It is well known that emissions of particulate matter are an inherent disadvantage of spark ignition engine with direct injection. Direct injection of gasoline can lead to the formation of substantial numbers of particulates, a proportion of which survive to be emitted from the vehicle's exhaust. EU legislation limits particle mass (PM) emissions; particle number (PN) is soon to be limited, although an opt-out means that dedicated filters will not be required immediately. A range of tests were conducted on a pool of Euro 5 passenger cars in BOSMAL's climate controlled emissions laboratory, using EU legislative test methodology. In addition, further measurements were performed (particle size distribution, tests at multiple ambient temperatures).
Technical Paper

RDE Testing of Passenger Cars: The Effect of the Cold Start on the Emissions Results

This paper discusses the importance of the inclusion of emissions from the cold start event during legislative on-road tests on passenger cars (RDE - real driving emissions tests conducted under real-world driving conditions, as defined by EU legislation). Results from a recently-registered gasoline-powered vehicle are presented, with the main focus on the comparison of exhaust emission results: excluding/including the cold start during the initial phase of the RDE test. Cold start is the most challenging aspect of emissions control for vehicles with spark ignition engines and the inclusion of the cold start event in RDE test procedure has wide-ranging implications both for the testing process and compliance with RDE legislation via optimisation of aftertreatment systems and the engine calibration. In addition to some theoretical arguments, the results of an RDE-compliant test performed using the aforementioned procedures are presented.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions, Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Two Vehicles Tested on Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends

Ethanol has a long history as an automotive fuel and is currently used in various blends and formats as a fuel for spark ignition engines in many areas of the world. The addition of ethanol to petrol has been shown to reduce certain types of emissions, but increase others. This paper presents the results of a detailed experimental program carried out under standard laboratory conditions to determine the influence of different quantities of petrol-ethanol blends (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. The ethanol-petrol blends were laboratory tested in two European passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle, using a constant volume sampler and analyzers for quantification of both regulated and unregulated emissions.
Journal Article

The Impact of Fuel Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Featuring Spark Ignition Engines

Ethanol has long been a fuel of considerable interest for use as an automotive fuel in spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. In recent years, concerns over oil supplies, sustainability and geopolitical factors have lead multiple jurisdictions to mandate the blending of ethanol into standard gasoline. The impact of blend ethanol content on gaseous emissions has been widely studied; particulate matter emissions have received somewhat less attention, despite these emissions being regulated in the USA. Currently, in the EU particulate matter emissions from SI engines are partially regulated - only vehicles featuring direct injection SI engines are subject to emissions limits. A range of experiments was conducted to determine the impact of fuel ethanol content on the emissions of solid pollutants from Euro 5 passenger cars.