Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 7 of 7
Technical Paper

Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance

Knock-limited loads for a set of surrogate gasolines all having nominal 100 research octane number (RON), approximately 11 octane sensitivity (S), and a heat of vaporization (HOV) range of 390 to 595 kJ/kg at 25°C were investigated. A single-cylinder spark-ignition engine derived from a General Motors Ecotec direct injection (DI) engine was used to perform load sweeps at a fixed intake air temperature (IAT) of 50 °C, as well as knock-limited load measurements across a range of IATs up to 90 °C. Both DI and pre-vaporized fuel (supplied by a fuel injector mounted far upstream of the intake valves and heated intake runner walls) experiments were performed to separate the chemical and thermal effects of the fuels’ knock resistance. The DI load sweeps at 50°C intake air temperature showed no effect of HOV on the knock-limited performance. The data suggest that HOV acts as a thermal contributor to S under the conditions studied.
Journal Article

Heat of Vaporization Measurements for Ethanol Blends Up To 50 Volume Percent in Several Hydrocarbon Blendstocks and Implications for Knock in SI Engines

The objective of this work was to measure knock resistance metrics for ethanol-hydrocarbon blends with a primary focus on development of methods to measure the heat of vaporization (HOV). Blends of ethanol at 10 to 50 volume percent were prepared with three gasoline blendstocks and a natural gasoline. Performance properties and composition of the blendstocks and blends were measured, including research octane number (RON), motor octane number (MON), net heating value, density, distillation curve, and vapor pressure. RON increases upon blending ethanol but with diminishing returns above about 30 vol%. Above 30% to 40% ethanol the curves flatten and converge at a RON of about 103 to 105, even for the much lower RON NG blendstock. Octane sensitivity (S = RON - MON) also increases upon ethanol blending. Gasoline blendstocks with nearly identical S can show significantly different sensitivities when blended with ethanol.
Journal Article

Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Biodiesel Content in Fuels and Lubricants by FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy

The use of biodiesel requires the development of proper quantification procedures for biodiesel content in blends and in lubricants (fuel dilution in oil). Although the ester carbonyl stretch at 1746 wavenumbers (cm-1) is the most prominent band in the IR spectrum of biodiesel, it is difficult to use for quantification purposes due to a severe fluctuation of absorption strength from sample to sample, even at the same biodiesel content. We have demonstrated that the ester carbonyl fluctuation is not caused by variation in the ester alkyl chain length; but is most likely caused by the degree of hydrogen bonding of the ester functional group with water in the sample. Water molecules can form complexes with the ester compound affecting the strength of the ester carbonyl band. The impact of water on quantification of the biodiesel content of blends was significant, even for B100 samples that met the proposed ASTM D6751 water limit of 500 ppm by D6304 (Karl Fischer Methdod).
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent).
Journal Article

Review: Fuel Volatility Standards and Spark-Ignition Vehicle Driveability

Spark-ignition engine fuel standards have been put in place to ensure acceptable hot and cold weather driveability (HWD and CWD). Vehicle manufacturers and fuel suppliers have developed systems that meet our driveability requirements so effectively that drivers overwhelmingly find that their vehicles reliably start up and operate smoothly and consistently throughout the year. For HWD, fuels that are too volatile perform more poorly than those that are less volatile. Vapor lock is the apparent cause of poor HWD, but there is conflicting evidence in the literature as to where in the fuel system it occurs. Most studies have found a correlation between degraded driveability and higher dry vapor pressure equivalent or lower TV/L = 20, and less consistently with a minimum T50. For CWD, fuels with inadequate volatility can cause difficulty in starting and rough operation during engine warmup.
Journal Article

Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines

We describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10°C and boiling point (or T90) <165°C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminated from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins.