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Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of High EGR, High Equivalence Ratio, and Mixing Time on Emissions Levels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for PCCI Combustion

Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine at high speed (1737 rev/min) and loads up to 60% of full load for fully Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. The engine was equipped with a high pressure (150 MPa) Caterpillar 300B HEUI fuel injection system. The engine was run with EGR levels up to 75% and with equivalence ratios up to 0.95. These experiments resulted in compliance of NOx and PM emissions to 2010 emissions mandates levels up to the tested load. The set of experiments also demonstrated the importance of cylinder charge preparation by way of optimized start-of-combustion timing for sufficient in-cylinder mixing. It was found that increased EGR rates, even with the correspondingly increased equivalence ratios, increase mixing time and substantially decrease PM emissions.
Journal Article

A Transport Equation Residual Model Incorporating Refined G-Equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Combustion Models

A transport equation residual model incorporating refined G-equation and detailed chemical kinetics combustion models has been developed and implemented in the ERC KIVA-3V release2 code for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine simulations for better predictions of flame propagation. In the transport equation residual model a fictitious species concept is introduced to account for the residual gases in the cylinder, which have a great effect on the laminar flame speed. The residual gases include CO2, H2O and N2 remaining from the previous engine cycle or introduced using EGR. This pseudo species is described by a transport equation. The transport equation residual model differentiates between CO2 and H2O from the previous engine cycle or EGR and that which is from the combustion products of the current engine cycle.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Time Scale Separation for Engine Simulations with Detailed Chemistry

The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine

This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at a medium engine load of 9 bar net IMEP and was also found to be effective to prevent excessive rates of pressure rise. Parameters used in the experiments were guided from the KIVA-CHEMKIN code with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism including injection timings, fuel percentages, and intake valve closing (IVC) timings for dual-fuel PCCI combustion. The engine experiments were conducted with a conventional common rail injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) and demonstrated control and versatility of dual-fuel PCCI combustion with the proper fuel blend, SOI and IVC timings.
Journal Article

Analysis of Averaging Methods for Large Eddy Simulations of Diesel Sprays

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) provide instantaneous values indispensable to conduct statistical studies of relevant fluctuating quantities for diesel sprays. However, numerous realizations are generally necessary for LES to derive statistically averaged quantities necessary for validation of the numerical framework by means of measurements and for conducting sensitivity studies, leading to extremely high computational efforts. In this context, the aim of this work is to explore and validate alternatives to the simulation of 20-50 single realizations at considerably lower computational costs, by taking advantage of the axisymmetric geometry and the Quasi-Steady-State (QSS) condition of the near nozzle flow at a certain time after start-of-injection (SOI).
Technical Paper

Assessment of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships

Engine development is both time consuming and economically straining. Therefore, efforts are being made to optimize the research and development process for new engine technologies. The ability to apply information gained by studying an engine of one size/application to an engine of a completely different size/application would offer savings in both time and money in engine development. In this work, a computational study of diesel engine size-scaling relationships was performed to explore engine scaling parameters and the fundamental engine operating components that should be included in valid scaling arguments. Two scaling arguments were derived and tested: a simple, equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal lift-off length scaling model. The simple scaling model is based on an equation for the conservation of mass and an equation for spray tip penetration developed by Hiroyasu et al. [1].
Technical Paper

Assessment of RNG Turbulence Modeling and the Development of a Generalized RNG Closure Model

RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Diesel Engine Combustion using Diesel and Bio-diesel Fuels

A computational study using multi-dimensional CFD modeling was performed to investigate the effects of physical properties on diesel engine combustion characteristics with bio-diesel fuels. Properties of typical bio-diesel fuels that were either calculated or measured are used in the study and the simulation results are compared with those of conventional diesel fuels. The sensitivity of the computational results to individual physical properties is also investigated, and the results provide information about the desirable characteristics of the blended fuels. The properties considered in the study include liquid density, vapor pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, liquid specific heat, latent heat, vapor specific heat, vapor diffusion coefficient, vapor viscosity and vapor thermal conductivity. The results show significant effects of the fuel physical properties on ignition delay and burning rates at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines

The effects of numerical methodology in defining the initial conditions and simulating the compression stroke in D.I. diesel engine CFD computations are studied. Lumped and pointwise approaches were adopted in assigning the initial conditions at IVC. The lumped approach was coupled with a two-dimensional calculation of the compression stroke. The pointwise methodology was based on the results of an unsteady calculation of the intake stroke performed by using the STAR-CD code in the realistic engine and port geometry. Full engine and 60 deg. sector meshes were used in the compression stroke calculations in order to check the accuracy of the commonly applied axi-symmetric fluid dynamics assumption. Analysis of the evolution of the main fluid dynamics parameters revealed that local conditions at the time of injection strongly depend on the numerical procedure adopted.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on D.I. Diesel Emissions and Performance

An emissions and performance study was performed to show the effects of injection pressure, nozzle hole inlet condition (sharp and rounded edge) and nozzle included spray angle on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine at 75% and 25% load at 1600 RPM. The fuel system consisted of an electronically controlled, hydraulically actuated, unit injector capable of injection pressures up to 160 MPa. Particulate versus NOx trade-off curves were generated for each case by varying the injection timing. The 75% load results showed the expected decrease in particulate and flattening of the trade-off curve with increased injection pressure. However, in going from 90 to 160 MPa, the timing had to be retarded to maintain the same NOx level, and this resulted in a 1 to 2% increase in BSFC. The rounded edged nozzles were found to have an increased discharge coefficient.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections and Flexible Control of Boost and EGR on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

A study of the combined use of split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting was conducted. Statistical optimization of the engine operating parameters was accomplished using a new response surface method. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the emissions and fuel consumption capabilities of a state-of-the-art heavy -duty diesel engine when using split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting over a wide range of engine operating conditions. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. Similarly, boost has been shown to be an important parameter to optimize. During the experiments, an instrumented single-cylinder heavy -duty diesel engine was used.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions performance of Multizone Stratified Compression Ignition Using Different Octane Fuels

Advanced combustion systems that simultaneously address PM and NOx while retaining the high efficiency of modern diesel engines, are being developed around the globe. One of the most difficult problems in the area of advanced combustion technology development is the control of combustion initiation and retaining power density. During the past several years, significant progress has been accomplished in reducing emissions of NOx and PM through strategies such as LTC/HCCI/PCCI/PPCI and other advanced combustion processes; however control of ignition and improving power density has suffered to some degree - advanced combustion engines tend to be limited to the 10 bar BMEP range and under. Experimental investigations have been carried out on a light-duty DI multi-cylinder diesel automotive engine. The engine is operated in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode using 93 RON (Research Octane Number) and 74 RON fuel.
Journal Article

Experiments and Modeling of Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) in Low Emissions Diesel Engines

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has been shown as a promising technique for simultaneous NOx and soot reduction while maintaining diesel-like efficiency. Although HCCI has been shown to yield very low emissions levels, spray-wall impingement and high pressure rise rates can be problematic due to the early injection timings necessary for certain HCCI operations. To address spray-wall impingement, an Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) was employed. This strategy uses multiple pulses at both low and high injection pressures to prepare an optimal in-cylinder mixture. A unique Variable Pressure Pulse (VPP) was developed to investigate the AIS concept experimentally. The VPP has the capability of delivering multiple injections at both low and high injection pressures (∼100 bar and ∼1000 bar respectively) through a single injector in the same engine cycle. Comparisons were made between model predictions and engine experiments using the VPP system.
Technical Paper

Gas Efficient Liquid Atomization Using Micro-Machined Spray Nozzles

Improved atomization is important in fuel injection applications since atomization influences fuel-air mixing and vaporization rates. The present paper explores the use of low pressure gas/air injection and methods to achieve a dispersed two-phase flow to enhance the atomization process. Gas-driven twin-fluid atomization has been achieved by combining X-ray lithographic/micro-machining technology to mechanically disperse a driving gas into a liquid to be sprayed. This technique forces the gas through a designed pattern of micron sized holes thereby yielding a field of micro-bubbles immediately upstream of the < I mm. diameter discharge orifice. Precise control of both uniformity of hole diameter and inter-hole spacing is critical to producing a well dispersed bubbly flow. The results show that the method of gas injection influences the liquid breakup process. Results are given for steady-flow atomization with low pressure injection into ambient air.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC): CFD Study of an Innovative Diesel HCCI Concept

This paper concerns a study of an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fueled engines. The concept consists in forming a pre-compressed homogeneous charge outside the cylinder and in gradually admitting it into the cylinder during the combustion process. This new combustion concept has been called Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC). CFD analysis was conducted to understand the feasibility of the HCPC concept and to identify the parameters that control and influence this novel HCCI combustion. A CFD code with detailed kinetic chemistry (AVL FIRE) was used in the study. Results in terms of pressure, heat release rate, temperature, and emissions production are presented that demonstrate the validity of the HCPC combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Improving Diesel Engine Performance Using Low and High Pressure Split Injections for Single Heat Release and Two-Stage Combustion

This study explores an Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) that employs multiple injections at both low and high pressures to reduce spray-wall impingement, control combustion phasing, and limit pressure rise rates in a Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) engine. Previous computational studies have shown that reducing the injection pressure of early injections can prevent spray-wall impingement caused by long liquid penetration lengths. This research focuses on understanding the performance and emissions benefits of low and high pressure split injections through experimental parametric sweeps of a 0.48 L single-cylinder test engine operating at 2000 rev/min and 5.5 bar nominal IMEP. This study examines the effects of 2nd injection pressure, EGR, swirl ratio, and 1st and 2nd injection timing, for both single heat release and two-peak high temperature heat release cases. In order to investigate the AIS concept experimentally, a Variable Injection Pressure (VIP) system was developed.