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Technical Paper

Detection of Dynamic Roll Instability of Heavy Vehicles for Open-Loop Rollover Control

Relative rollover conditions of a heavy vehicle are analyzed to establish an array of potential dynamic rollover indicators towards development of an early warning device. A relative roll instability indicator defined as Roll Safety Factor (RSF) is proposed and shown to be a highly reliable indicator regardless of vehicle configurations and operating conditions. The correlation of various potential rollover indicators with the roll safety factor are then investigated for a 5-axle tractor semi-trailer combination using a comprehensive directional dynamic analysis model to determine the reliability of the proposed indicators over a range of operating conditions. The indicators are further examined in terms of measurability, lead time, and potential for application in an early warning system. The study shows that the trailer lateral acceleration and axle roll angles are closely correlated with the RSF.
Technical Paper

Directional Dynamics of a Partly-Filled Tank Vehicle Under Braking and Steering

Dynamic behavior of a partly-filled liquid cargo vehicle subject to simultaneous application of cornering and braking maneuvers is investigated through computer simulation. A three-dimensional quasi-dynamic model of a partly-filled tank of circular cross-section is developed and integrated into a comprehensive three-dimensional model of an articulated vehicle to study its directional response under varying steering and braking inputs, fill volumes and road surface friction. The liquid load movement encountered under combined steering and braking is expressed in terms of variations in the instantaneous c.g. coordinates and mass moments of inertia of the liquid bulk, assuming negligible influence of fundamental slosh frequency and viscous effects.
Technical Paper

Directional Response of Partially Filled Tank vehicles

The directional dynamics of partially filled articulated tank vehicles is investigated via computer simulation assuming constant forward velocity. The directional response characteristics of an articulated tank vehicle is investigated for various steering manoeuvres and compared to that of an equivalent rigid cargo vehicle to demonstrate the destabilizing effects of liquid load shift. It is concluded that during a steady steer input, the distribution of cornering forces caused by the liquid load shift yields considerable deviation of the path followed by the tank vehicle. The lateral load shift encountered in a partially filled tank vehicle during lane change and evasive type of highway manoeuvres gives rise to roll and lateral instabilities.
Technical Paper

Influence of Partition Location on the Braking Performance of a Partially-Filled Tank Truck

The longitudinal load transfer encountered in a partly-filled ellipsoidal tank truck, subject to a straight-line braking maneuver, is investigated as a function of the location of partition walls, deceleration and the fill level. The response characteristics of the truck equipped with a compartmented tank are evaluated in terms of dynamic load transfer, stopping distance, braking time and time lag between the front and rear axle wheel lock-up. The braking response characteristics are derived as a function of the load shift, and number and location of partition walls. Road tests were performed on an airport fuel truck, equipped with a 3 m long tank with two movable partition walls. The simulation results derived from the test vehicle model are compared to the road test data to demonstrate the validity of the analytical model. The results show good correlation with the measured data acquired under straight-line braking maneuvers performed under different fill levels and initial speeds.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tank Design Factors on the Rollover Threshold of Partially Filled Tank Vehicles

General purpose tank vehicles often carry partial loads in view of variations in the weight density of the liquid cargo and are thus subject to slosh loads during highway manoeuvres. The magnitude of destabilizing forces and moments due to liquid slosh is strongly related to a number of vehicle and tank design factors, such as tires, suspension, articulation mechanism, weights and dimensions, tank geometry and fill level. The rollover threshold of the tank vehicle is compared to that of an equivalent rigid cargo vehicle to demonstrate the destabilizing effects of liquid slosh. The rollover threshold of the tank vehicle is evaluated for a number of tank design factors. Influence of tank size and cross-section on the rollover threshold of the tank vehicles is investigated. The study concludes that the lateral load shift and thus the rollover threshold is strongly related to the tank cross-section geometry.
Technical Paper

Optimal Suspension Damping for Improved Driver- and Road- Friendliness of Urban Buses

Dynamic interactions of urban buses with urban roads are investigated in view of the vibration environment for the driver and dynamic tire forces transmitted to the roads. The static and dynamic properties of suspension component and tires are characterized in the laboratory over a wide range of operating conditions. The measured data is used to derive nonlinear models of the suspension component, and a tire model as a function of the normal load and inflation pressure. The component models are integrated to study the vertical and roll dynamics of front and rear axles of the conventional and modern low floor designs of urban buses. The resulting nonlinear vehicle models are thoroughly validated using the fieldmeasured data on the ride vibration and tire force response of the buses.
Technical Paper

Optimal Tank Geometry to Enhance Static Roll Stability of Partially Filled Tank Vehicles

A generic tank cross-section is formulated to describe the geometry of currently used tanks in transportation of fuel oils and bulk liquids, and to explore optimal tank geometry for enhancement of roll stability limit of tank vehicle combinations. The tank periphery, composed of 8 circular arcs symmetric about the vertical axis, allows more design flexibility in view of the roll stability limits than the conventional tank shapes. A shape optimization problem is formulated to minimize the overturning moment imposed on the vehicle due to c.g. height of the liquid load, and the lateral and vertical movement of the liquid bulk within the partly filled tank. Different optimal tank cross-sections are proposed corresponding to varying fill conditions, while the total cross-sectional area, overall height and overall width are constrained to specified values.
Journal Article

Performance Analysis of Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) for Commercial Vehicles with Greater Lateral Load Shift Propensity

An Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) offers attractive potential for realizing improved directional control performance compared to the conventional Active Front Steering (AFS) system, particularly under more severe steering maneuvers. The AIFS control strategy adjusts the wheel steer angles in an independent manner so as to utilize the maximum available adhesion at each wheel/road contact and thereby compensate for cornering loss caused by the lateral load transfer. In this study, the performance potentials of AIFS are explored for vehicles experiencing greater lateral load transfers during steering maneuvers such as partly-filled tank trucks. A nonlinear yaw plane model of a two-axle truck with limited roll degree-of-freedom is developed to study the performance potentials of AIFS under different cargo fill conditions.
Journal Article

Performance Enhancement of Road Vehicles Using Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS)

Technological developments in road vehicles over the last two decades have received considerable attention towards pushing the safe performance limits to their ultimate levels. Towards this goal, Active Front Steering (AFS) and Direct Yaw-moment Control (DYC) systems have been widely investigated. AFS systems introduce corrective steering angles to conventional system in order to realize target handling response for a given speed and steering input. It is thus expected that such an action under severe maneuvers may cause one tire to reach saturation while the other tire may be capable of developing more force. This study, therefore, proposes an Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) system capable of controlling a wheel independently. At low speeds, the proposed AIFS system will modify the steer angle with speeds while maintaining pro-ackerman geometry similar to an AFS system. In doing so, it will realize a target response defined as one provided by a neutral steer system.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Dynamic Pavement Loads of Heavy Vehicles Through Optimal Suspension Damping and Axle Vibration Absorber

In this study, the enhancement of road friendliness of Heavy Goods Vehicle is investigated using two methods to control the resonant forces: (i) Determination of optimal asymmetric force velocity characteristics of the suspension dampers to control the wheel forces corresponding to the resonant modes; (ii) Optimal design of an axle vibration absorber to control the wheel forces corresponding to the unsprung mass resonance mode. An analogy between the dynamic wheel loads and ride quality performance characteristics of heavy vehicles is established through analysis of an in-plane vehicle model. A weighted optimization function comprising the dynamic load coefficient (DLC) and the overall rms vertical acceleration at the driver's location is formulated to determine the design parameters of the damper and absorber for a range of vehicle speeds. The results show that implementation of tuned axle absorbers can lead to reduction in the DLC ranging from 11.5 to 21%.
Technical Paper

Role of Transverse Baffle Designs on Transient Three-Dimensional Liquid Slosh in a Partly-Filled Circular Tank

Transient fluid slosh within a partly-filled tank could impose high stresses on the tank structure and affect the directional performance in an adverse manner. A three-dimensional nonlinear model of a partly filled circular cylindrical tank with and without baffles is formulated and analyzed to derive the pressure distribution over the wetted tank surface. The baffles and end caps are modeled with curved shapes in accordance with the current standard. The analyses are performed for 40% and 60% fill volumes and different types of baffles, including single-nozzle and multiple-orifice baffles, using the FLUENT software under time varying acceleration fields representing simultaneous braking and turning maneuvers. The pressure data are further analyzed to evaluate steady-state and transient slosh forces, load shifts along the longitudinal and lateral axes, and the roll, pitch and yaw moments imposed on the tank structure.