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Technical Paper

Advanced Mounting System for Light Duty Diesel Filter

This paper employs a systematic approach to packaging design and testing of a system and its components in order to determine the long term durability of light duty diesel filters. This effort has utilized a relatively new aluminum titanate filter technology as well as an advanced support mat technology engineered to provide superior holding force at lower temperatures while maintaining its high temperature performance. Together, these two new technologies form a system that addresses the unique operating conditions of diesel engines. Key physical properties of both the filter and the mat are demonstrated through laboratory testing. The system behavior is characterized by various laboratory techniques and validation procedures.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for a Ceramic Preconverter System

The preconverter is an essential element of exhaust gas treatment to help meet the tighter emission standards of TLEV and LEV levels. Its design must be chosen so as to meet the simultaneous requirements of compactness, faster light-off, low back pressure, high temperature durability and low cost. This paper presents design options for a ceramic substrate and durable package which lead to an optimum and cost-effective preconverter system. Preliminary data for high temperature physical durability of selected converter systems are presented. Performance parameters for light-off activity and back pressure are also computed and compared with those of standard substrates used in underbody application. Laboratory tests comprising of axial push-out test, high temperature vibration test, exhaust gas simulation test and the engine dynamometer test demonstrate the viability of ceramic preconverters for automotive application.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Biaxial Strength of Automotive Windshields

This paper focuses on the effect of temperature on biaxial strength of curved, symmetrically laminated, automotive windshields. In view of their aspheric curvature, the measurement of biaxial strength requires a special ring-on-ring test fixture with compliant loading and support rings. The key factors that affect strength are (i) fatigue behavior of surface flaws, (ii) expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer, and (iii) interfacial bond integrity. These, in turn, depend on the operating temperature which for automotive windshields can range from −40°C in winter to +50°C in summer. The data show that the biaxial strength is 21% higher at −40°C and 28% lower at +50°C than that at room temperature. An assessment of fatigue and interfacial bond integrity shows that strength changes of these magnitudes are predominantly caused by residual stresses arising from expansion mismatch between glass and PVB interlayer.
Technical Paper

Electrical Regeneration of Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filters for Underground Mining Applications

The use of a Calrod type electrical faceheater, powered by two 12V heavy duty batteries in series, as a regeneration initiator for a 12 in (30.5 cm) diameter × 12 in (30.5 cm) long segmented honeycomb ceramic filter is described. Recent test data, obtained on Deutz mining engines during the regeneration process, is presented. The effects of various regeneration parameters on the reliability and long-term durability of the filter is discussed together with the effect of fuel additives. The test data include both the measured temperature profiles and calculated thermal stresses in the filter with and without fuel additives.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Severity of Oven Shock Test for Ceramic Substrates

The oven shock test is an accelerated test which is often used to quantify the thermal durability of both coated and uncoated ceramic substrates. The test calls for heating the substrate for 30 minutes in an oven, which is preheated to specified temperature, and then cooling it in ambient environment for 30 minutes. Such a cycle induces axial and tangential stresses, during cooling, in the skin region whose magnitude depends on physical properties, oven temperature, radial temperature gradient and the aspect ratio of substrate. In addition, these stresses vary with time; their maximum values occur as soon as the substrate is taken out of the oven. This paper evaluates the severity of thermal stresses as function of above factors and estimates the probability and mode of failure during cooling using thermocouple data. Methods to reduce these stresses are discussed.
Technical Paper

New Tests for Characterizing the Durability of a Ceramic Catalytic Converter Package

New test methods were developed to characterize the high temperature durability of intumescent mats that are used to mount ceramic catalyst supports in stainless steel cans. The key attribute of these tests is the use of an electric resistance heating method to maintain a temperature gradient through the thickness of the mat when a cyclic or constant shear stress is applied to the mat interface. These tests are simple to perform and do not require expensive equipment or highly skilled operators. Using these new test methods, the durability of ceramic preconverters mounted with 4070 gm/m2 intumescent mat was studied. The results of these tests indicate that a preconverter package with 4070 gm/m2 intumescent mat can perform satisfactorily in the close-coupled application where temperatures exceed 900°C. The mat performance can be quantified in terms of applied stress and test temperature by utilizing the experimental methods described in the present study.