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Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of GDI Spray Impact over Walls at Different Temperatures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0853
Internal combustion engines performance greatly depends on the air-fuel mixture formation and combustion processes. In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, in particular, the impact of the liquid spray on the piston or cylinder walls is a key factor, especially if mixture formation occurs under the so-called wall-guided mode. Impact causes droplets rebound and/or deposition of a liquid film (wallfilm). After being rebounded, droplets undergo what is called secondary atomization. The wallfilm may remain of no negligible size, so that fuel vapor rich zones form around it leading to so-called pool-flames (flames placed in the piston pit), hence to unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM) formation. A basic study of the spray-wall interaction is here performed by directing a multi-hole GDI spray against a real shape engine piston, possibly heated, under standard air conditions.
Technical Paper

An experimental investigation on combustion and engine performance and emissions of a methane-gasoline dual-fuel optical engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1329
The use of methane as supplement to liquid fuel is one of the solution proposed for the reduction of the internal combustion engine pollutant emissions. Its intrinsic properties as the high knocking resistance and the low carbon content makes methane the most promising clean fuel. The dual fuel combustion mode allows improving the methane combustion acting mainly on the methane slow burning velocity and allowing lean burn combustion mode. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion. Methane was injected in combustion chamber (DI fuel) while gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel). The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
Journal Article

Analysis of flame kinematics and cycle variation in a Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0057
This paper reports on the analysis of flame kinematics and cycle variation in port fuel injection (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head and with an external boost device. Different operating conditions were considered. Cycle-resolved digital imaging was used to investigate flame motion and the effects of an abnormal combustion due to the firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface. Various algorithms are applied to the acquired images. Coefficients of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) were computed and used for a statistical analysis of cycle variability. The advantage is that the analysis can be run on a small number of scalar coefficients rather than on the full data set of pixel valued luminosity.
Journal Article

Capturing Cyclic Variability in SI Engine with Group Independent Component Analysis

2015-09-06
2015-24-2415
Data decomposition techniques have become a standard approach for the analysis of 2D imaging data originating from optically accessible internal combustion engines. In particular, the method of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has proven to be a valuable tool for the evaluation of cycle-to-cycle variability based on luminous combustion imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. POD basically permits to characterize the dominant structures of the process under consideration. Recently, an alternative procedure based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been introduced in the engine field. Unlike POD, the method of ICA identifies the patterns corresponding to physical processes that are statistically independent. In this work, a Group-ICA approach is applied to 2D cycle-resolved images of the luminosity emitted by the combustion process. The analysis is meant to characterize cyclic variability of a port fuel injection spark ignition (PFI SI) engine.
Journal Article

Characterization of CH4 and CH4/H2 Mixtures Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0852
In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels which can allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. Among gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels leading to lower CO₂ emissions; if compared to gasoline, CH₄ has wider flammable limits and better anti-knock properties, but lower flame speed. The addition of H₂ to CH₄ can improve the already good qualities of methane and compensate its weak points. In this paper a comparison was carried out between CH₄ and different CH₄/H₂ mixtures. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection spark ignition (PFI SI), four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycle engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Ethanol Blends Combustion Processes and Soot Formation in a GDI Optical Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1316
This paper deals with the evaluation of the effect of fuel properties on soot formation in a GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in an optical 4-stroke small single cylinder engine for two-wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with an elongated piston with a wide sapphire window in the head and a quartz cylinder liner. The engine was fuelled with pure gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 20% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. Optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the combustion process and soot formation. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to assess the soot evolution. Radical species such as OH and CH, related to fuel quality and to soot formation/oxidation process, were detected. Measurements were carried out at various engine speeds and loads in order to allow optical measurements and to test the engine in real conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Combustion processes and Particle Emissions in a GDI/PFI Small Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1382
The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions.
Journal Article

Characterization of Knock Tendency and Onset in a GDI Engine by Means of Conventional Measurements and a Non-Conventional Flame Dynamics Optical Analysis

2017-09-04
2017-24-0099
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows knock tendency reduction in spark-ignition engines mainly due to the cooling effect of the in-cylinder fuel evaporation. However, the charge formation and thus the injection timing and strategies deeply affect the flame propagation and consequently the knock occurrence probability and intensity. In particular, split injection allows a reduction of knock intensity by inducing different AFR gradient and turbulent energy distribution. Present work investigates the tendency to knock of a GDI engine at 1500 rpm full load under different injection strategies, single and double injections, obtained delivering the same amount of gasoline in two equal parts, the first during intake, the second during compression stroke. In these conditions, conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine endowed of optical accesses to the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Investigation in a Small SI Engine using Optical Diagnostics

2010-10-25
2010-01-2262
Nowadays an elevated number of two, three and four wheels vehicles circulating in the world-wide urban areas is equipped with Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engines. Their technological level is high, but a further optimization is still possible, especially at low engine speed and high load. To this purpose, the scientific community is now focused on deepening the understanding of thermo fluid dynamic phenomena that takes place in this kind of engine: the final purpose is to find key points for the reduction in engine specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions without a decrease in performance. In this work, the combustion process was investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder PFI SI engine. It was equipped with the head, injection device and exhaust line of a commercial small engine for two-wheel vehicles, it had the same geometrical characteristics in terms of bore, stroke and compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Simulated Volume Fraction Burned Using a Quasi-Dimensional Model and Flame Area Measured in an Optically Accessible SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0545
Multi-fuel operation is one of the main topics of investigative research in the field of internal combustion engines. Spark ignition (SI) power units are relatively easily adaptable to alternative liquid-as well as gaseous-fuels, with mixture preparation being the main modification required. Numerical simulations are used on an ever wider scale in engine research in order to reduce costs associated with experimental investigations. In this sense, quasi-dimensional models provide acceptable accuracy with reduced computational efforts. Within this context, the present study puts under scrutiny the assumption of spherical flame propagation and how calibration of a two-zone combustion simulation is affected when changing fuel type. A quasi-dimensional model was calibrated based on measured in-cylinder pressure, and numerical results related to the two-zone volumes were compared to recorded flame imaging.
Technical Paper

Design for an Optically Accessible Multicylinder High Performance GDI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0046
In this paper, the modifications realized to make optically accessible a commercial high performance spark ignition and direct injection (DI) 4-cylinder engine are reported. The engine has been designed trying to keep as much as possible its thermo-fluid dynamic configuration in order to maintain its performance and emissions. Two optical accesses have been realized in order to interfere as little as possible with the combustion chamber geometry. A first optical access has been achieved in the piston head and a second by inserting an endoscopic fiber probe in the head. Preliminary results demonstrated that this optical assessment responds to the design targets and allowed a characterization of a commercial GDI engine working with homogeneous and stratified charge mode.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Diesel Engine at Variable Operating Conditions: A Numerical and Experimental Study

2015-09-06
2015-24-2411
The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas, NG) concept represents a solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas as an alternative fuel. As well known, the dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. A further important requirement of the DF operation in automotive engines is a satisfactory response in a wide range of load levels. In particular, the part-load levels could present more challenging conditions for an efficient combustion development, due to the poor fuel/air ratio. Basing on the above assumptions, the authors discuss in this article the results of a combined numerical and experimental study on the effect of different injection timings on performance and pollutant fractions of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Effect of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends on Spark Ignition Stoichiometric Engine Efficiency

2011-09-11
2011-24-0121
Hydrogen (H₂) added to natural gas (NG), improves the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture. This gives the potentiality to develop engines with better performance and lower environmental impact. In any case how hydrogen is produced represents a crucial aspect. In general, if H₂ is produced utilizing fossil fuels and not renewable or nuclear sources, the environmental benefit of CO₂ reduction could be reduced. In this paper two engines, a light-duty (LD) and a heavy-duty (HD), were tested in stoichiometric conditions. The engines were fuelled with NG and with two blends of NG with a 20% and a 40% by volume of H₂, respectively named NG/H₂ 20% and NG/H₂ 40%. The light-duty engine was tested at different loads and speeds, with spark advance set by the electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU actuated a retarded ignition, especially at low load. With the heavy-duty engine, the tests were carried out only at high load.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Number Obtained with Different Oxygenated Components on the Engine Performance and Emissions of a Small GDI Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0038
Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol and Gasoline Blending and Dual Fueling on Engine Performance and Emissions.

2015-09-06
2015-24-2490
Ethanol is the most promising alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines, that is blended with gasoline, typically. Moreover, in the last years great attention is paid to the dual fueling, ethanol and gasoline are injected simultaneously. This paper aims to analyze the better methods, blending or dual fueling in order to best exploit the potential of ethanol in improving engine performance and reducing pollutant emissions. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000, 4000, and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the European homologation urban driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Temperature Combustion on Particle and Gaseous Emission of a Dual Fuel Light Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0081
In recent years the use of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines has had a strong push coming from both technical and economic-environmental aspects. Among these, gaseous fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas have occupied a segment no longer negligible in the automotive industry, thanks to their adaptability, anti-knock capacity, lower toxicity of pollutants, reduced CO2 emissions and cost effectiveness. On the other hand, diesel engines still represent the reference category among the internal combustion engines in terms of fuel consumptions. The possibility offered by the dual fuel systems, to combine the efficiency and performance of a diesel engine with the environmental advantages of gaseous fuels, has been long investigated. However the simple replacement of diesel fuel with natural gas does not allow to optimize the performance of the engine due to the high THC emissions particularly at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline

2019-10-07
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in a commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with gasoline and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. It was analyzed the effects of the prechamber on engine performance, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Fuel Consumption were used. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed. Emissions samples were taken from the exhaust flow, just downstream of the valves. Four different engine speeds were investigated, namely 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Addition Influence on Backfire Phenomena during Kickback in a Spark-Ignition Transparent Small Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0093
This paper investigates abnormal combustion during the cranking phase of spark-ignition small engines, specifically the occurrence of backfire at the release of the starter motor during kickback. The research focusses on the influence of fuel composition, mainly in terms of ethanol percentage, on backfire occurrence. Interest in this abnormal combustion is growing due to the increased use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline. Moreover, this issue will become even more topical due to the implementation of simple control and fuel supply systems on low cost-engines, which are widely used in developing countries. Experimentation was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel vehicles. The test bench was instrumented and adapted in order to simulate the engine conditions that lead to anomalous ignition in the intake duct (backfire) during the reverse rotation of the engine (kickback).
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of a Gasoline PFI-Methane DI Dual Fuel and an Air Assisted Combustion of a Transparent Small Displacement SI Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2459
The use of direct injection (DI) engines allows a more precise control of the air-fuel ratio, an improvement of fuel economy, and a reduction of exhaust emissions thanks to the ultra-lean combustion due to the charge stratification. These effects can be partially obtained also with an optimized Air Direct Injection that permits to increase the turbulence at low speed and load increasing the combustion stability especially in lean condition. In this paper, a gasoline PFI (named G-PFI), gasoline PFI-methane DI dual fuel (named G-MDF) lean combustion were analyzed. The G-MDF configuration was also compared with a gasoline PFI - air DI (named G-A) configuration in order to distinguish the chemical effect of methane from the direct injection physical effect. The tests were carried out in a small displacement PFI/DI SI engine. The experimental investigation was carried out in a transparent small single-cylinder, spark ignition four-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of a Natural Gas Fueled Engine and 1-D Simulation of VVT and VVA Strategies

2013-09-08
2013-24-0111
The paper deals with experimental testing of a natural gas fueled engine. Break Specific fuel Consumption (BSFC), Average Mass Flow Rate, Instantaneous Cylinder Pressure and some wall temperatures have been measured at some full and part load operating conditions. The results of this experimental activity, still in progress, have been used to calibrate a 1D-flow engine's model. Then the effects of some VVA strategies have been theoretically studied through the validated model. With the aim of maximizing the full load engine's torque, a genetic algorithm was used to calculate the optimized intake and exhaust valves timing angles. Various VVA strategies were compared at part-load in order to reduce brake specific fuel consumption.
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