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Journal Article

An Evaluation of Particle Size Distributions and Particle Number-Based Reductions from Various PM Emission Control Technologies

2011-04-12
2011-01-0600
For diesel emission control technologies, reduction efficiencies of Particulate Matter (PM) control systems have been traditionally reported based on mass-based criteria. However, particle number-based criteria are now receiving increased attention. In this paper, results of real-time particle size distribution and number based evaluation of the effectiveness of multiple PM control technologies are reported on an HDD engine. An Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) was used for comparative analysis. The technologies that were evaluated included diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), a DOC with an uncatalyzed wall-flow filter as a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) system, a DOC with a catalytically coated wall-flow filter as a catalyzed CR-DPF (CCR-DPF), and a DOC with a partial filter as a continuously regenerating partial filter (CR-PF).
Technical Paper

Combined SCR and DPF Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel Retrofit

2005-04-11
2005-01-1862
The retrofitting of diesel engines with oxidation catalyst and particulate filter technology for the reduction of particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has become an established practice. The design and performance of such systems have been commercially proven to the point that the application of these technologies is a cost effective means for states to effectively meet pollution reduction goals. One of the reasons that these technologies are so widely applied is because they can be sized and fitted based on easily measurable vehicle parameters and published engine emission information. These devices generally work passively with basic temperature and back pressure monitoring devices being used to alert the operator to upset conditions. The application of an effective NOx reduction technology in similar retrofit installation, is more complicated. There are no passive NOx reduction technologies that can be retrofit onto HDD vehicles.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of SCR on a Diesel Particulate Filter System on a Heavy Duty Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1033
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2013 Heavy Duty Diesel emission control systems include a DOC upstream of a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) which is followed by urea injection and the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, which would enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CSF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCRF® technology, hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Control Systems to Enable High NOx Conversion on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1525
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, which will require increasingly higher NOx conversion to meet emission regulations. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as SCR coated on filter (SCRF®) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversion. In this work, different options were evaluated for achieving high NOx conversion. First, high performance NOx control catalysts were designed by using SCRF unit followed by additional SCR on high porosity substrates. Second, different control strategies were evaluated to understand the effect of reductant dosing strategy and thermal management on NOx conversion. Tests were carried out on a HD engine under transient test cycles.
Journal Article

Development of Emission Control Systems to Enable High NOx Conversion on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0992
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, while discussions are in progress for tightening NOx emissions from HD engines post 2020. This will require increasingly higher NOx conversions across the emission control system and will challenge the current aftertreatment designs. Typical 2010/2013 Heavy Duty systems include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) along with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst, SCR coated on filter (SCRF® hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversions, in combination with improved control strategies.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Cu- and Fe-Based SCR Emission Control Systems for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1329
Since early 2010, most new medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles in the US rely on urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for meeting the most stringent regulations on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in the world today. Catalyst technologies of choice include Copper (Cu)- and Iron (Fe)-based SCR. In this work, the performances of Fe-SCR and Cu-SCR were investigated in the most commonly used DOC + CSF + SCR system configuration. Cu-SCR offered advantages over Fe-SCR in terms of low temperature conversion, NO₂:NOx ratio tolerance and NH₃ slip, while Fe-SCR demonstrated superior performance under optimized NO₂:NOx ratio and at higher temperatures. The Cu-SCR catalyst displayed less tolerance to sulfur (S) exposure. Reactor testing has shown that Cu-SCR catalysts deactivate at low temperature when poisoned by sulfur.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control to Meet BS VI Regulations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0125
The next generation advanced emission regulations have been proposed for the Indian heavy duty automotive industry for implementation from 2020. These BS VI emission regulations will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced PM (Particulate Matter) control along with Particle Number limitations. This will require implementation of full DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and simultaneous NOx control using SCR technologies. DPF technologies have already been successfully implemented in Euro VI and US 10 HDD systems. These systems use low temperature NO2 based passive DPF regeneration as well as high temperature oxygen based active DPF regeneration. Effective DPF and DOC designs are essential to enable successful DPF regeneration (minimize soot loading in the DPF) while operating HDD vehicles under transient conditions. DOC designs are optimized to oxidize engine out NO into NO2, which helps with passive DPF regeneration.
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