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Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1801
This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Effect of Bio-Fuels on the Combustion in a Downsized DI SI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1991
In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Certain Alcohol and Furan-Based Biofuels on Controlled Auto Ignition

2012-04-16
2012-01-1135
For gasoline engines controlled autoignition provides the vision of enabling the fuel consumption benefit of stratified lean combustion systems without the drawback of additional NOx aftertreatment. In this study the potential of certain biofuels on this combustion system was assessed by single-cylinder engine investigations using the exhaust strategy "combustion chamber recirculation" (CCR). For the engine testing sweeps in the internal EGR rate with different injection strategies as well as load sweeps were performed. Of particular interest was to reveal fuel differences in the achievable maximal load as well as in the NOx emission behavior. Additionally, experiments with a shock tube and a rapid compression machine were conducted in order to determine the ignition delay times of the tested biofuels concerning controlled autoignition-relevant conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biofuels on the Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Diesel-Like Jets

2017-10-08
2017-01-2332
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Integrated Air Supply and Humidification Concepts for Fuel Cell Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0233
In this paper different air management system concepts including mechanical superchargers and turbochargers are analysed with regard to their suitability for fuel cell applications. Therefore a simulation model which takes the main mass, energy and heat flows in the fuel cell system including fuel evaporation, reformer, gas cleaning, humidification, burner and compressor/expander unit into account was setup. For a PEM system with methanol steam reformer the best system efficiencies at rated power can be achieved with a turbocharger in combination with a tailgas burner for operating pressures between 2.5 and 2.8 bar. For pure hydrogen systems the best system efficiency is obtained with an electric driven supercharger for a maximum pressure of 2 bar and an appropriate pressure strategy during part load operation in the complete operating range. The increase of system efficiency for pressurized stack operation is mainly attributed to advantages with regard to water management.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation on the Origin of Pre-Ignition in a Highly Boosted SI Engine Using Bio-Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1636
Downsizing of highly-boosted spark-ignition (SI) engines is limited by pre-ignition, which may lead to extremely strong knocking and severe engine damage. Unfortunately, the concerning mechanisms are generally not yet fully understood, although several possible reasons have been suggested in previous research. The primary objective of the present paper is to investigate the influence of molecular bio-fuel structure on the locations of pre-ignition in a realistic, highly-charged SI engine at low speed by state-of-the-art optical measurements. The latter are conducted by using a high-sensitivity UV endoscope and an intensified high-speed camera. Two recently tested bio-fuels, namely tetrahydro-2-methylfuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF), are investigated. Compared to conventional fuels, they have potential advantages in the well-to-tank balance. In addition, both neat ethanol and conventional gasoline are used as fuels.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Different Biofuel Components in Diesel Blends on Engine Efficiency and Emission Performance

2010-10-25
2010-01-2119
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency. The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.
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