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Journal Article

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Engine Modelling: A Seamless Transfer from Concept Design to HiL Testing

Virtual system integration and testing using hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation enables front-loading of development tasks, provides a safer and reliable testing environment and reduces prototype hardware costs. One of the greatest challenges to overcome when performing HiL simulations is assuring a high model accuracy under stringent real-time requirements with acceptable development effort. This article represents a novel solution by deriving the plant model for HiL directly from the existing detailed models from the component layout phase using co-simulation methodology. It provides an effective and efficient model implementation and validation process followed by detailed quantitative analysis of the test results referred to the engine test bench measurements.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell System Air Management Utilizing HIL Tools

In this paper, boosting strategies are investigated for part load operation of typical fuel-cell-systems. The optimal strategy can mainly be obtained by simulation. The boosting strategy is one of the most essential parameters for design and operation of a fuel-cell-system. High pressure ratios enable high power densities, low size and weight. Simultaneously, the demands in humidification and water recovery for today's systems are reduced. But power consumption and design effort of the system increases strongly with the pressure level. Therefore, the main focus must be on the system efficiencies at part load. In addition, certain boundary conditions like the inlet temperature of the fuel-cell stack must be maintained. With high pressure levels the humidification of the intake air before, within or after the compressor is not sufficient to dissipate enough heat. Vaporization during the compression process shows efficiency advantages while the needs in heat dissipation decreases.
Journal Article

Engine in the Loop: Closed Loop Test Bench Control with Real-Time Simulation

The complexity of automobile powertrains grows continuously. At the same time, development time and budget are limited. Shifting development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) increases the efficiency by utilizing test benches instead of prototype vehicles (road-to-rig approach). Early system verification of powertrain components requires a closed-loop coupling to real-time simulation models, comparable to hardware-in-the-loop testing (HiL). The international research project Advanced Co-Simulation Open System Architecture (ACOSAR) has the goal to develop a non-proprietary communication architecture between real-time and non-real-time systems in order to speed up the commissioning process and to decrease the monetary effort for testing and validation. One major outcome will be a generic interface for coupling different simulation tools and real-time systems (e.g. HiL simulators or test benches).
Journal Article

Hardware-in-the-Loop-Based Virtual Calibration Approach to Meet Real Driving Emissions Requirements

The use of state-of-the-art model-based calibration tools generate only limited benefits for seamless validation in powertrain calibration due to the often neglected system-level simulation of a closed-loop vehicle environment. This study presents a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL)-based virtual calibration approach to establish an accurate virtual calibration platform using physical plant models. It is based on a customisable real-time HiL simulation environment. The use of physical models to predict the behaviour of a complete powertrain makes the HiL test bench particularly suited for Engine Control Unit (ECU) calibration. With the virtual test rig approach, the calibration for the critical extended driving and ambient conditions of the new Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements can efficiently be optimised. This technique offers a clear advantage in terms of reducing calibration time and costs.
Technical Paper

HiL-Calibration of SI Engine Cold Start and Warm-Up Using Neural Real-Time Model

The modern engine design process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. The introduction of predictive real-time simulation tools that represent the entire powertrain can likely contribute to improving the efficiency of the calibration process. Engine models, which are purely based on physical first principles, are usually not capable of real-time applications, especially if the simulation is focused on cold start and warm-up behavior. However, the initial data definition for the ECU using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL)-Simulator requires a model with both real-time capability and sufficient accuracy. The use of artificial intelligence systems becomes necessary, e.g. neural networks. Methods, structures and the realization of a hybrid real-time model are presented in this paper, which combines physical and neural network models.
Technical Paper

HiL-based ECU-Calibration of SI Engine with Advanced Camshaft Variability

A main focus of development in modern SI engine technology is variable valve timing, which implies a high potential of improvement regarding fuel consumption and emissions. Variable opening, period and lift of inlet and outlet valves enable numerous possibilities to alter gas exchange and combustion. However, this additional variability generates special demands on the calibration process of specific engine control devices, particularly under cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper presents procedures, based on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation, to support the classical calibration task efficiently. An existing approach is extended, such that a virtual combustion engine is available including additional valve timing variability. Engine models based purely on physical first principles are often not capable of real time execution. However, the definition of initial parameters for the ECU requires a model with both real time capability and sufficient accuracy.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Predictive Models for Application in Engine Cold-Start Behavior

The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.