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Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Combined Physical / Neural Approach for Real-Time Models of Losses in Combustion Engines

Reliable estimation of pumping and friction losses in modern combustion engines allows better control strategies aiming at optimal fuel consumption and emissions. Sophisticated simulation tools enable detailed simulation of losses based as well on physical and thermodynamic laws as well as on design data. Models embedded in these tools however are not real-time capable and cannot be implemented into the programs of the electronic control units (ECU's). In this paper an approach is presented that estimates the pumping and friction losses of a combustion engine with variable valve train (VVT). Particularly the pumping losses strongly depend on the control of variable valve train by ECU. The model is based on a combination of a globally physical structure embedding data driven sub models based on test bed measurements. Losses are separated concerning different component groups (bearings, pistons, etc.).
Technical Paper

A Generic Modeling Approach for Automotive Power Net Consumers

The integration of safety-critical and major power-consuming electrical systems presents a challenge for the development of future automotive electrical networks. Both reliability and performance must be enhanced in order to guarantee the power supply to essential electrical consumers at a sufficient degree of power quality. Often, in order to cope with these requirements, merely an upgrade of the existing wiring harness design is used, resulting in additional complexity, weight, and cost [3]. A characterization of the wiring harness and its electrical consumers facilitates a systematic optimization approach aimed at designing new automotive power networks [1, 5]. Measurement and analysis methods to characterise the thermal behaviour of the wiring harness have been presented and discussed in a previous paper [4] This paper presents and compares two methods aimed at modeling the electrical behavior of consumers at various voltages and temperatures.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Optimization of Mixture Formation on Gasoline DI Engines

Advanced technologies such as direct injection DI, turbocharging and variable valve timing, have lead to a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on driving pleasure, fuel consumption and emissions. Today's developments are primarily focused on the implementation of improved full load characteristics for driving performance and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbocharging and high specific power. The requirements of a relatively small cylinder displacement with high specific power and a wide flexibility of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and additionally to a high number of degrees of freedom during optimization. In order to successfully approach an optimum solution, FEV has evolved an advanced development methodology, which is based on the combination of simulation, optical diagnostics and engine thermodynamics testing.
Journal Article

A New Approach to Calorimetric Efficiency Measurements and Analysis of Electric Vehicle Drive Losses

The development of battery electric vehicle drives comes along with comprehensive and time-consuming finite element methods and extensive measurement campaigns. The drive efficiency has drawn great attention from engineers and customers, because it influences the size of the drive, the cooling measures and the vehicle range. Indirect efficiency acquisition accomplished by comparing inward and outward power, has a low accuracy which arises from a relatively small difference between inward and outward power of highly efficient drives. Therefore the indirect efficiency acquisition is insufficient to evaluate advanced development measures.
Journal Article

A New Approach to the Test, Assessment and Optimization of Robust Electrical Distribution Systems

Both the electrical portion of the powertrain and the rising number of auxiliary systems will considerably increase the electrical power requirements in future vehicles. In addition, multiple voltage supply levels will enhance the complexity of the electrical distribution system (EDS), while strict cost, weight, packaging, and safety constraints must be upheld, posing serious design challenges in terms of robustness, reliability and energy efficiency. Currently, a self-contained integral test or evaluation of the EDS is normally not applied. For such a purpose, quantitative quality criteria are introduced here which allow a comparative assessment of an EDS by addressing the dynamic and static stability of the supply voltage, the reliability of the fusing system, and the ability to provide the required electrical power. The presented approach uses both precisely-defined test scenarios and a comprehensive EDS test bench.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to the Thermal Analysis of Electrical Distribution Systems

The optimum design of an electrical distribution system (EDS) is based on the profound understanding and measurement of its thermal behavior, because this determines wire diameter and insulation material, has a major impact on the fusing strategy, and enables minimizing technical risk. Current methods of calculation require an extensive database, whereas the temperature measurements at selected points with normal sensors allow neither the precise rating of the actual insulation temperature within a wire bundle, nor the determination of the thermal impact of load currents. The presented approach is based on both a new measurement method and on a related evaluation algorithm. A common automotive wire is applied as a sensing device using its resistance temperature coefficient as the measurement principle.
Technical Paper

A New CFD Approach for Assessment of Swirl Flow Pattern in HSDI Diesel Engines

The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
Journal Article

A Sectoral Approach to Modelling Wall Heat Transfer in Exhaust Ports and Manifolds for Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

A new approach is presented to modelling wall heat transfer in the exhaust port and manifold within 1D gas exchange simulation to ensure a precise calculation of thermal exhaust enthalpy. One of the principal characteristics of this approach is the partition of the exhaust process in a blow-down and a push-out phase. In addition to the split in two phases, the exhaust system is divided into several sections to consider changes in heat transfer characteristics downstream the exhaust valves. Principally, the convective heat transfer is described by the characteristic numbers of Nusselt, Reynolds and Prandtl. However, the phase individual correlation coefficients are derived from 3D CFD investigations of the flow in the exhaust system combined with Low-Re turbulence modelling. Furthermore, heat losses on the valve and the seat ring surfaces are considered by an empirical model approach.
Journal Article

A Statistical Analysis of Electrical Power Requirements in Vehicles

The increasing power and safety requirements of electrical systems present a challenge for future automotive electrical networks. However, the modeling of use-profiles and the overall power consumption of electrical systems proves to be difficult as the number of potential on/off combinations of the loads is tremendous. Furthermore, the operation of some loads is correlated or depends upon the operating conditions. Thus, simple worst-case calculations applied to this complexity often lead to an over-specification of components. The proposed approach is based on the probabilities of loads being in the on-state and their respective interdependencies with each other and with boundary conditions such as time of day. Applying basic statistics and a new iterative algorithm, it allows the calculation of the probability of consumed total power for a given set of boundary conditions and of, very importantly, its expected continuous period.
Journal Article

A Statistical Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of Electrical Distribution Systems

For the prevention of technical risks and the optimum design of an electrical distribution system, considerable efforts have been made to implement thermal models of wires, bundles, and electromechanical components in order to improve thermal analysis. Unfortunately, in most cases, important input parameters such as the position of a wire within a bundle or the profiles of the currents are unknown. This leads to the use of worst-case scenarios, frequently providing unrealistic results and uneconomic over-dimensioning. The proposed approach is based on the thermal simulation of a large number of randomly-generated bundle configurations for given profiles of currents. Thus one gets a temperature distribution, allowing a much more precise analysis compared to a simple worst-case calculation. By applying the same method to various current profiles, one gets temperature distributions for each wire as a function of a normalized total bundle current.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Development and Engine Performance with Breakdown Ignition Systems in a Visualization Engine

A conventional coil ignition system and two breakdown ignition systems with different electrode configurations were compared in M.I.T.'s transparent square piston engine. The purpose was to gain a deeper understanding of how the breakdown and glow discharge phases affect flame development and engine performance. The engine was operated with a standard intake valve and with a shrouded intake valve to vary the characteristic burning rate of the engine. Cylinder pressure data were used to characterize the ignition-system performance. A newly developed schlieren system which provides two orthogonal views of the developing flame was used to define the initial flame growth process. The study shows that ignition systems with higher breakdown energy achieve a faster flame growth during the first 0.5 ms after spark onset for all conditions studied.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Combustion Control for Gasoline Controlled Autoignition

Gasoline Controlled Auto Ignition offers a high CO2 emission reduction potential, which is comparable to state-of-the-art, lean stratified operated gasoline engines. Contrary to the latter, GCAI low temperature combustion avoids NOX emissions, thereby trying to avoid extensive exhaust aftertreatment. The challenges remain in a restricted operation range due to combustion instabilities and a high sensitivity towards changing boundary conditions like ambient temperature, intake pressure or fuel properties. Once combustion shows instability, cyclic fluctuations are observed. These appear to have near-chaotic behavior but are characterized by a superposition of clearly deterministic and stochastic effects. Previous works show that the fluctuations can be predicted precisely when taking cycle-tocycle correlations into account. This work extends current approaches by focusing on additional dependencies within one single combustion cycle.
Technical Paper

Acoustics of Hybrid Vehicles

The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior.
Technical Paper

Advanced Functional Pulse Testing of a Two-Stage VCR-System

Two-stage variable compression ratio (VCR) systems for spark ignited engines offer a CO2 reduction potential of approx. 5%. Due to their modularity, connecting rod based VCR-systems can be integrated into existing engine assembly systems, where engines can be built in parallel with or without such a system, depending on performance and market requirements. In order to comply with the new RDE emission standards with high specific power engine variants, VCR systems enable high load engine operation without fuel enrichment. The interactions between the hydraulic-, mechanical - and oil supply systems of a VCR-system with variable connecting rod length are complex and require a well-developed and adapted layout of all subsystems. This demands the use of tailored measurement and simulation tools during the development and application phases. In this context, Advanced Functional Pulse Testing enables single-parameter analyses of VCR con rods.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cyclic Fluctuations of Charge Motion and Mixture Formation in a DISI Engine in Stratified Operation

Engine processes are subject to cyclic fluctuations, which a have direct effect on the operating and emission behavior of the engine. The fluctuations in direct injection gasoline engines are induced and superimposed by the flow and the injection. In stratified operation they can cause serious operating problems, such as misfiring. The current state of knowledge on the formation and causes of cyclic fluctuations is rather limited, which can be attributed to the complex nature of flow instabilities. The current investigation analyzes the cyclic fluctuations of the in-cylinder charge motion and the mixture formation in a direct injection gasoline engine using laser-optical diagnostics and numerical 3D-calculation. Optical measurement techniques and pressure indication are used to measure flow, mixture formation, and combustion processes of the individual cycles.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Effect of Bio-Fuels on the Combustion in a Downsized DI SI Engine

In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Certain Alcohol and Furan-Based Biofuels on Controlled Auto Ignition

For gasoline engines controlled autoignition provides the vision of enabling the fuel consumption benefit of stratified lean combustion systems without the drawback of additional NOx aftertreatment. In this study the potential of certain biofuels on this combustion system was assessed by single-cylinder engine investigations using the exhaust strategy "combustion chamber recirculation" (CCR). For the engine testing sweeps in the internal EGR rate with different injection strategies as well as load sweeps were performed. Of particular interest was to reveal fuel differences in the achievable maximal load as well as in the NOx emission behavior. Additionally, experiments with a shock tube and a rapid compression machine were conducted in order to determine the ignition delay times of the tested biofuels concerning controlled autoignition-relevant conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Due to their rapid market introduction, extensive field experience with GPFs is not yet available. Especially for four-way catalytic converters, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. In the first part of the paper, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Since most of the ash accumulated in the filter results from the combustion of lubricating oil additives, a burner test bench with a purpose-designed oil injection system was chosen for the investigations. The analysis of the backpressure results show that, contrary to high soot loadings, the ash load has a relatively low impact on engine performance and fuel consumption.