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Technical Paper

Advantages of Synthetic Automotive Engine Lubricants

Outstanding overall engine performance has been obtained by formulating automotive engine lubricants with synthetic base stocks. This paper summarizes the performance features of an optimized SAE 10w-30 synthetic passenger car engine oil. Comparisons to premium mineral oil-based products are made in areas of fuel economy, low-temperature cranking, high-temperature deposition, antiwear performance, quality reserve capability, and oil consumption control. Supporting data are shown from tests involving U.S., European, and Japanese vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Saving Benefits of Synthetic Engine Oils

A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate additives for their ability to reduce the coefficient of friction of synthetic engine oils using a laboratory bench test apparatus. A class of additives was identified that also proved effective in providing fuel economy benefits when tested in vehicle dynamometer evaluations. Additional investigations using the proposed ASTM Five Car Energy Conserving Engine Oil Test Procedure confirmed the fuel saving performance of this specific additive class. This paper also discusses overall engine performance of synthetic engine oils formulated using this unique type of friction reducing additive. A full series of API SF/CC/CD quality level sequence tests, including critical extended length evaluations, was performed and excellent performance was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Performance in Passenger Car Turbochargers

Turbocharging of gasoline-powered passenger car engines, to provide improved performance while maintaining good overall fuel economy, has been adopted by some U.S. and overseas builders. The high temperatures encountered in turbochargers can seriously affect the engine oil life. Under certain severe operating conditions excessive oil degradation deposits can be formed in the turbochargers which can lead to bearing failure. A vehicle chassis-rolls test procedure was developed to evaluate lubricant composition effects on turbocharger deposits and bearing condition. Evaluations of a number of different engine oils have demonstrated superior performance for one class of synthetic oil over high-quality mineral oils in lubricating the high-temperature areas of passenger car turbochargers.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Studies in Rotary-Combustion Engines

Discussion of the rotary-combustion engine's history, operation, and lubrication illustrates the role of various quality level engine oils in providing the necessary functions of engine seal wear protection, bearing lubrication, rotor cooling, and overall combustion chamber area cleanliness. Specific examples of current quality and experimental-type engine oil influence on overall engine durability, including seal and housing surface wear, are cited for various engine designs. Data evaluating lube oil effects on engine cleanliness and oil consumption characteristics are also discussed. Analysis of used oil from a number of test engines is presented showing the rotary-combustion engine to yield oil deterioration typical of current piston engines.
Technical Paper

Synthetic Engine Oils - A New Concept

A new class of synthetic fluids has been developed with specific physical and chemical properties, which can be used to formulate automotive engine lubricants with a performance range far exceeding that obtainable with conventional mineral-oil-based lubricants. New, unique synthetic engine lubricants are described that provide improved low-temperature fluidity and cold-starting performance, better high-temperature stability and engine cleanliness, outstanding viscosity stability, reduced oil consumption, better oil pressure retention, and reduction of engine wear. The superiority of these new synthetic lubricants is documented with results of evaluations conducted in a wide range of engines and vehicles using standard and newly developed test procedures. Testing under severe rally and field conditions is also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Performance of Fuel-Saving Engine Oils

The fuel-saving capabilities of various experimental and commercial passenger car engine oils have been demonstrated in extensive studies. Lower viscosity oils and those containing friction-reducing additives have shown measurable fuel economy benefits in a wide range of laboratory and vehicle tests. Several test techniques are described for screening fuel-saving engine oils and components. Closely controlled chassis rolls and over-the-road vehicle tests are utilized to demonstrate the actual lubricant-related fuel economy benefits. Within the range of variables included in this study, reducing engine oil viscosity is the most effective way to improve fuel economy. Fuel savings realized from friction-reducing additives are relatively modest and many of the more effective materials are shown to have poor performance in standard sequence tests, particularly regarding engine wear.