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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Spot-Welded Steel Connections Using a DOE Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-0612
This paper presents an investigation into the behavior of spot-welded steel connections based on a DOE approach. This work is a part of spot-weld modeling methodology development work being performed at Ford. Control factors such as material, coating, gage size, and noise factors such as loading direction (angle), and speed are considered in this study. Different levels of each variable are included to cover a wide range of practical applications. The test methodology used to generate the responses for the spot-weld coupons have been discussed in a companion paper [1]. From the force-displacement curves obtained from the test, the responses such as peak force, displacement at peak force, and rupture displacement are identified. These responses are then statistically analyzed to identify the relative importance and effect of the design factors. Finally, response surface models are developed to determine responses across different levels of each variable.
Journal Article

Axial Crash Testing and Finite Element Modeling of A 12-Sided Steel Component

2010-04-12
2010-01-0379
To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness Simulation of Lower Control Arm Impact Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-0361
Finite element models of cast aluminum and stamped steel lower control arms (LCAs) were created to simulate subsystem tests of LCA with bushings and brackets. Several modeling methods were used to simulate the dynamic responses of cast aluminum LCAs, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Factors that are essential for modeling stamped steel components found in previous studies [1, 2] including strain rate, forming, and welding effects are incorporated in the stamped steel LCA models. Difficulties in modeling LCAs subsystem, possible remedies, and further improvements are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Data Processing For CAE Material Input With Strain Rate Effects

2005-04-11
2005-01-0359
Strain rate effects have been identified as one of the most critical factors for the modeling of vehicle components in many previous investigations. The strain rate data available to the authors have been processed to obtain the input decks of a required material law in prior investigations. With the application of strain rate modeling, the strain rate database needs to be expanded. In order to continuously improve the safety CAE quality and efficiency, especially the prediction of a vehicle's pulse in a crash event, the effort has been made to include more strain rate data and extend the material database for safety CAE applications. In this study, strain rate data provided by Ispat Inland Inc. for AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program are processed. The material processed in this study include HSS590-CR, 440W-GA, BH300-GI, HSLA350-GI, DP600-HR, TRIP590-EG, TRIP600-CR, TRIP780-CR.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Testing and CAE Modeling of Body Mount An Application in the Frontal Impact Analysis of a Body-on-Frame Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-0256
This study is a systematic investigation of the body mounts' dynamic characteristics in component, sub-system and full system levels and its application in the frontal impact analysis of a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle. Concluded from the component study, the body mount is modeled by non-linear spring with built-in damage and rupture properties. The sub-system study reveals the importance of modeling the interaction between the body mount and its surrounding structure. A general-purpose interaction modeling is developed to provide a realistic CAE simulation of this interaction behavior. The full system is mainly for methodology validation. Four 90-degree frontal and the one IIHS offset frontal crash tests are used to evaluate the performance of the body mount in low and high speeds and its capability of predicting the body mount and the floor pan failures.
Technical Paper

Effect of Trigger Variation on Frontal Rail Crash Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-0358
The frontal rail is one of the most important components of a vehicle in determining crash performance, especially for a body on frame vehicle. Prior research [1] has shown that the frontal rail absorbs a significant amount of impact energy in a crash condition. In order to optimize crash performance, a component level sensitivity study was conducted to determine the effect different types of triggers would have on the performance of the frontal rail. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of trigger size, trigger shape, and trigger orientation as well as to improve corresponding trigger modeling methodology by comparing crushed components to crushed CAE models. In this sensitivity study, the location of the triggers was held fixed, while the size, shape, and orientation were varied. The metric that will be used to compare the performance of these different trigger shapes is the overall stiffness of the frontal rail.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0355
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Spot Weld Connections In Crash Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0691
Spot welding is the primary joining method used for the construction of the automotive body structure made of steel. A major challenge in the crash simulation today is the lack of a simple yet reliable modeling approach to characterize spot weld separation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation in crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to characterize the spot weld nugget. To represent the connection of the nugget with the surrounding plates, tied contacts are defined between the spring element nodes and the shell elements of the plate. Three general separation criteria are proposed for the spot weld that include the effects of speed and coupled loading conditions. The separation criteria are implemented into a commercially available explicit finite element code.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body-On-Frame Vehicles: Part II - Full Vehicle Crash

2004-03-08
2004-01-0689
This study focuses on the modeling of a frame in a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle to improve the prediction of vehicle response in crashes. The study is divided into three phases - component (frame material modeling), subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). In the component level, we investigate the available strain rate data, the performance of various material models in crash codes and the effect of the strain rate in crash simulation. In the subsystem phase, we incorporate the strain rate modeling and expand the scope to include both the forming and the welding effects in the subsystem CAE model to improve the correlation between CAE and test. Finally the improved frame modeling methodology with strain rate, forming and welding effects is adopted in full vehicle model. It is found that the proposed frame modeling methodology is crucial to improve the pulse prediction of a full vehicle in crashes.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of the EEVC Offset Deformable Barrier

1997-04-08
971531
Statistic shows the majority of real world frontal collisions involve only partial overlap of the vehicle front end. Thus the European Experimental Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has established a safety standard and test procedure utilizing a deformable barrier for offset impacts. The offset deformable barrier (ODB) is designed to represent the characteristics of a vehicle front end. Therefore, it can replace a target vehicle and the offset test can be conducted economically. Many component, sub-assembly and full vehicle system tests have been conducted in Ford using the EEVC ODB. Based on the various tests, the barrier responds differently depending on the front end design and the size of an impacting vehicle. Sometimes the front end of a test vehicle punches through the barrier. Also rupture of aluminum sheets and tearing of honeycomb materials are often observed in post-test barriers.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

2011-04-12
2011-01-0001
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Technical Paper

Impact Testing of Bushings for Crashworthiness Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0317
The dynamic response of a front lower control arm (LCA) is very important in crash safety. In the event of a crash, the deformation of the LCA affects the frame rail's ability to crush and absorb energy on impact. Therefore, the deformation and rupture of the LCA during a crash may indirectly influence the deceleration pulse which is needed for safety sensor calibration of airbag deployment [1]. Depending on compliance, bushings have a significant effect on the deformation and rupture of the LCA. During a high speed impact test, the bushings allow the LCA to rotate at the joints or points where the LCA connects to the frame. The development of new LCA and bushing designs, constructed of different materials and geometries, require a standard test to measure their performance. The overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized procedure to test the stiffness, deformation, and strength of LCA bushings.
Technical Paper

Impact Testing of Lower Control Arm for Crashworthiness Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0352
The conversion between cast aluminum lower control arms (LCAs) and stamped steel LCAs has prompted the need for new LCA designs to achieve parallel levels of performance. Component tests procedures and CAE modeling methodologies need to be utilized to assess future LCA designs across a variety of vehicle lines to meet or exceed performance criteria. Therefore the overall goal of this study was to develop a standardized test procedure to test the stiffness, deformation and strength of LCAs. In addition, CAE modeling methodologies to better model LCAs will be developed. The test procedures and CAE modeling methodologies would then be used to set performance targets for future LCA designs. To standardize the LCA test procedure, component test fixtures were developed in this work. The objective of the fixtures is to test LCAs with similar boundary conditions they would experience in vehicle crash. Three different test modes are examined in this project.
Technical Paper

Implicit and Explicit Finite Element Methods for Crash Safety Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0982
Explicit method is commonly used in crashworthiness analysis due to its capability to solve highly non-linear problems without numerous iterations and convergence problems. However, the time step for explicit methods is limited by the time that the physical wave crosses the element. Therefore, to avoid large amount of CPU time, the explicit method is usually used for non-linear dynamic problems with a short period of simulation duration. For problems under quasi-static loading conditions at pre-crash and post-crash, implicit method could be more efficient than explicit methods because the required computation time is much shorter. Due to the recent advance of crash codes, which allows both implicit and explicit computations to be performed in the same code, crash engineers are able to use explicit computation for crash simulation as well as implicit computation for some of the pre-crash quasi-static loading or post-crash spring back simulations.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs Under Dynamic Inclined Loads

2007-04-16
2007-01-0979
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
Technical Paper

Mass Efficient Cross-Sections Using Dual Phase Steels For Axial and Bending Crushes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0978
Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Testing of Spot-Welded Steel Connections Under Static and Impact Loadings

2003-03-03
2003-01-0608
Spot-welds are the primary joining methods for steel sheet metals used in the manufacturing of automobile body structure. Often the impact responses are significantly affected by the characteristic properties, such as stiffness, failure strength, etc of spot-welds. In view of this, understanding the behavior and the properties of spot-welds under static and impact loadings are critical for accurate CAE analysis of vehicle impact events. To this end, a comprehensive DOE based spot-weld testing has been undertaken by considering a wide variety of variables. The test data thus obtained were analyzed to determine the requisite mechanical properties of spot-welds as a function of the key variables such as gage, yield strengths, speed, etc. Spot-weld connections have been tested for gages ranging from 0.7 to 3.0 mm using a unique specimen configuration developed at Ford.
Technical Paper

Modeling Energy Absorption and Deformation of Multicorner Columns in Lateral Bending

2006-04-03
2006-01-0123
The frame rail has an impact on the crash performance of body-on-frame (BOF) and uni-body vehicles. Recent developments in materials and forming technology have prompted research into improving the energy absorption and deformation mode of the frame rail design. It is worthwhile from a timing and cost standpoint to predict the behavior of the front rail in a crash situation through finite element techniques. This study focuses on improving the correlation of the frame component Finite Element model to physical test data through sensitivity analysis. The first part of the study concentrated on predicting and improving the performance of the front rail in a frontal crash [1]. However, frame rails in an offset crash or side crash undergo a large amount of bending. This paper discusses appropriate modeling and testing procedures for front rails in a bending situation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Design for Vehicle Pitch and Drop of Body-on-Frame Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0356
Vehicle pitch and drop play an important role for occupant neck and head injury at frontal impact. The excessive vehicle header drop, due to vehicle pitch and drop during crash, induces aggressive interaction between occupant head and sun visor/header that causes serious head and neck injuries. For most of body-on-frame vehicles, vehicle pitch and drop have commonly been observed at frontal impact tests. It is because the vehicle body is pulled downward by frame rails, which bend down during crash. Hence, the challenges of frame design are not only to absorb crash energy but also to manage frame deformation for minimizing vehicle pitch and drop. In this paper, the finite element method is used to analyze frame deformation at full frontal impact. To ensure the quality of CAE model, a full vehicle FEA model is correlated to barrier tests. In addition, a study of CAE modeling affecting vehicle header drop is performed.
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