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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Spot-Welded Steel Connections Using a DOE Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-0612
This paper presents an investigation into the behavior of spot-welded steel connections based on a DOE approach. This work is a part of spot-weld modeling methodology development work being performed at Ford. Control factors such as material, coating, gage size, and noise factors such as loading direction (angle), and speed are considered in this study. Different levels of each variable are included to cover a wide range of practical applications. The test methodology used to generate the responses for the spot-weld coupons have been discussed in a companion paper [1]. From the force-displacement curves obtained from the test, the responses such as peak force, displacement at peak force, and rupture displacement are identified. These responses are then statistically analyzed to identify the relative importance and effect of the design factors. Finally, response surface models are developed to determine responses across different levels of each variable.
Technical Paper

Approaches to Modeling the Dynamic Interaction for an Automotive Seat and Occupant System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0988
There are a wide variety of approaches to model the automotive seat and occupant interaction. This paper traces the studies conducted for simulating the occupant to seat interaction in frontal and/or rear crash events. Starting with an initial MADYMO model, a MADYMO-LS/DYNA coupled model was developed. Subsequently, a full Finite Element Analysis model using LS/DYNA was studied. The main objective of the studies was to improve the accuracy and efficiency of CAE models for predicting the dummy kinematics and structural deformations at the restraint attachment locations in laboratory tests. The occupant and seat interaction was identified as one of the important factors that needed to be accurately simulated. Quasi-static and dynamic component tests were conducted to obtain the foam properties that were input into the model. Foam specimens and the test setup are discussed. Different material models in LS/DYNA were evaluated for simulating automotive seat foam.
Journal Article

Axial Crash Testing and Finite Element Modeling of A 12-Sided Steel Component

2010-04-12
2010-01-0379
To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.
Technical Paper

Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0198
To accurately evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel with a superior combination of high strength and excellent ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness Simulation of Lower Control Arm Impact Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-0361
Finite element models of cast aluminum and stamped steel lower control arms (LCAs) were created to simulate subsystem tests of LCA with bushings and brackets. Several modeling methods were used to simulate the dynamic responses of cast aluminum LCAs, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Factors that are essential for modeling stamped steel components found in previous studies [1, 2] including strain rate, forming, and welding effects are incorporated in the stamped steel LCA models. Difficulties in modeling LCAs subsystem, possible remedies, and further improvements are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Data Processing For CAE Material Input With Strain Rate Effects

2005-04-11
2005-01-0359
Strain rate effects have been identified as one of the most critical factors for the modeling of vehicle components in many previous investigations. The strain rate data available to the authors have been processed to obtain the input decks of a required material law in prior investigations. With the application of strain rate modeling, the strain rate database needs to be expanded. In order to continuously improve the safety CAE quality and efficiency, especially the prediction of a vehicle's pulse in a crash event, the effort has been made to include more strain rate data and extend the material database for safety CAE applications. In this study, strain rate data provided by Ispat Inland Inc. for AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program are processed. The material processed in this study include HSS590-CR, 440W-GA, BH300-GI, HSLA350-GI, DP600-HR, TRIP590-EG, TRIP600-CR, TRIP780-CR.
Technical Paper

Determination of Spot Weld Modeling Parameters from Test Data for Finite Element Crash Simulation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0692
The authors have proposed a new formulation to characterize the mechanical properties of spot welds under dynamic loadings including separation. In this paper, the authors primarily discuss a systematic procedure to determine the parameters of the proposed spot weld model from test data using a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach and statistical analyses. All analysis pertaining to the spot weld modeling under impact loading has been performed using RADIOSS, a commercially available explicit FE crash solver. In this study, the spot weld connection was modeled using a two-node beam-type spring element with 6 DOF at each node, and the sheet metal was modeled using a four-node shell element. The main objective was to develop a spot weld modeling methodology that is accurate and robust enough to be used in a full vehicle model which is composed of hundreds of different parts and will be crashed under different test conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Compatibility Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-1055
An accurate and robust target vehicle model was developed for vehicle compatibility applications. Although vehicle compatibility simulation involves a bullet vehicle hitting a target vehicle, the focus of this paper is to develop a target vehicle model. To ensure the robustness, the target vehicle model needs to provide reasonable responses under different impact conditions. This can be achieved by calibrating the model against different physical tests. Significant effort was taken to improve the accuracy of the target vehicle model. In the calibration process, some components were found to have significant effects on the global responses. These components play different roles in different crash modes. To improve the overall correlation with test, different component tests were also designed and conducted to understand the characteristics and improve the modeling of these critical components.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Simulations: Part I Rigid Barrier Impacts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0246
The objective of this study is to develop a target vehicle model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact applications. In order to provide reasonable predictions for crash pulses in vehicle-to-vehicle impacts, an accurate and robust target vehicle model was developed first. An ideal target vehicle model should be able to provide reasonable results when hit by different bullet vehicles at different impact speeds and under different impact conditions. This was achieved by calibrating the target vehicle model against different vehicle crash tests, which include full rigid barriers, angular rigid barriers, offset rigid barriers, and fixed rigid poles. Twelve rigid barrier tests were adopted in this study to calibrate the target vehicle model. During the calibration process, some of the vehicle structures were examined and remodeled carefully for their properties and mesh quality.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Testing and CAE Modeling of Body Mount An Application in the Frontal Impact Analysis of a Body-on-Frame Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-0256
This study is a systematic investigation of the body mounts' dynamic characteristics in component, sub-system and full system levels and its application in the frontal impact analysis of a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle. Concluded from the component study, the body mount is modeled by non-linear spring with built-in damage and rupture properties. The sub-system study reveals the importance of modeling the interaction between the body mount and its surrounding structure. A general-purpose interaction modeling is developed to provide a realistic CAE simulation of this interaction behavior. The full system is mainly for methodology validation. Four 90-degree frontal and the one IIHS offset frontal crash tests are used to evaluate the performance of the body mount in low and high speeds and its capability of predicting the body mount and the floor pan failures.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Testing and CAE Modeling of Engine Mounts and their Application in Vehicle Crash Analysis

2003-03-03
2003-01-0257
This study summarizes the latest development of the methodologies for testing and CAE modeling of the engine mount. A systematic approach is used in this study with detailed component, subsystem and full system level investigations. The component level study reveals the entangling phenomenon of the inertial and rate effects in the engine mount dynamic characteristics. In the subsystem, the interaction between the engine mount and its surrounding structure is explored. The full system study is primarily used to validate the CAE methodology for engine mounts developed in the component and subsystem level studies. Four full vehicle barrier crash tests, with different crash modes and speeds, are employed in this validation phase to evaluate the performance of the engine mount CAE methodology.
Technical Paper

Effect of Trigger Variation on Frontal Rail Crash Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-0358
The frontal rail is one of the most important components of a vehicle in determining crash performance, especially for a body on frame vehicle. Prior research [1] has shown that the frontal rail absorbs a significant amount of impact energy in a crash condition. In order to optimize crash performance, a component level sensitivity study was conducted to determine the effect different types of triggers would have on the performance of the frontal rail. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of trigger size, trigger shape, and trigger orientation as well as to improve corresponding trigger modeling methodology by comparing crushed components to crushed CAE models. In this sensitivity study, the location of the triggers was held fixed, while the size, shape, and orientation were varied. The metric that will be used to compare the performance of these different trigger shapes is the overall stiffness of the frontal rail.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0355
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Spot Weld Connections In Crash Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0691
Spot welding is the primary joining method used for the construction of the automotive body structure made of steel. A major challenge in the crash simulation today is the lack of a simple yet reliable modeling approach to characterize spot weld separation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation in crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to characterize the spot weld nugget. To represent the connection of the nugget with the surrounding plates, tied contacts are defined between the spring element nodes and the shell elements of the plate. Three general separation criteria are proposed for the spot weld that include the effects of speed and coupled loading conditions. The separation criteria are implemented into a commercially available explicit finite element code.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body on Frame Vehicles, Part 1 - Subsystem Investigation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0688
For a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle, the frame is the major structural subsystem to absorb the impact energy in a frontal vehicle impact. It is also a major contributor to energy absorption in rear impact events as well. Thus, the accuracy of the finite element frame model has significant influence on the quality of the BOF vehicle impact predictability. This study presents the latest development of the frame modeling methodology on the simulation of BOF vehicle impact performance. The development is divided into subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). This paper presents the first phase, subsystem testing and modeling, of the frame modeling development. Based on the major deformation modes in frontal impact, the frame is cut into several sections and put on the sled to conduct various tests. The success of the sled test highly depends on whether the sled results can replicate the deformation modes in the full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body-On-Frame Vehicles: Part II - Full Vehicle Crash

2004-03-08
2004-01-0689
This study focuses on the modeling of a frame in a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle to improve the prediction of vehicle response in crashes. The study is divided into three phases - component (frame material modeling), subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). In the component level, we investigate the available strain rate data, the performance of various material models in crash codes and the effect of the strain rate in crash simulation. In the subsystem phase, we incorporate the strain rate modeling and expand the scope to include both the forming and the welding effects in the subsystem CAE model to improve the correlation between CAE and test. Finally the improved frame modeling methodology with strain rate, forming and welding effects is adopted in full vehicle model. It is found that the proposed frame modeling methodology is crucial to improve the pulse prediction of a full vehicle in crashes.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of the EEVC Offset Deformable Barrier

1997-04-08
971531
Statistic shows the majority of real world frontal collisions involve only partial overlap of the vehicle front end. Thus the European Experimental Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has established a safety standard and test procedure utilizing a deformable barrier for offset impacts. The offset deformable barrier (ODB) is designed to represent the characteristics of a vehicle front end. Therefore, it can replace a target vehicle and the offset test can be conducted economically. Many component, sub-assembly and full vehicle system tests have been conducted in Ford using the EEVC ODB. Based on the various tests, the barrier responds differently depending on the front end design and the size of an impacting vehicle. Sometimes the front end of a test vehicle punches through the barrier. Also rupture of aluminum sheets and tearing of honeycomb materials are often observed in post-test barriers.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

2011-04-12
2011-01-0001
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Technical Paper

Impact Simulation of Hydro-formed Front End Vehicle Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0312
The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the hydro-forming process and the effect of strain rate on crash performance and develop a modeling approach to improve the accuracy of crash prediction. Work hardening, thinning and strain rate effects are investigated in both component and full vehicle analyses to understand their sensitivities. Gages measured and material properties tested from post-formed tubes are compared with hydro-forming simulation results to confirm accuracy of the modeling methodology proposed in the paper. Front crash simulation using strain rate and forming effects are correlated with the test data for both component and full vehicle analyses and conclusion has been drawn from this comparison.
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