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Technical Paper

A Model for Converting SI Engine Flame Arrival Signals into Flame Contours

1995-02-01
950109
A model which converts flame arrival times at a head gasket ionization probe, used in a spark-ignition engine, into flame contours has been developed. The head gasket was manufactured at MIT using printed circuit board techniques. It has eight electrodes symmetrically spaced around the circumference (top of cylinder liner) and it replaces the conventional head gasket. The model is based on engine flame propagation rate data taken from the literature. Data from optical studies of S.I. engine combustion or studies utilizing optical fiber or ionization probe diagnostics were analyzed in terms of the apparent flame speed and the entrainment speed (flame speed relative to the fluid ahead of the flame). This gives a scaling relationship between the flame speed and the mass fraction burned which is generic and independent of the chamber shape.
Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

1996-10-01
962032
A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

A Rapid Compression Machine Study of the Influence of Charge Temperature on Diesel Combustion

1987-02-01
870587
Difficulties in the starting and operation of diesel engines at low temperatures are an important consideration in their design and operation, and in selection of the fuels for their use. Improvements in operation have been achieved primarily through external components of the engine and associated subsystems. A Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) has been modified to operate over a wide range of temperatures (−20°C to 100°C). It is used to isolate the combustion chamber in an environment in which all significant parameters are carefully defined and monitored. The influence of temperature and cetane number on the ignition and combustion processes are analyzed. Examination of the combustion characteristics show that temperature is by far the most influential factor affecting both ignition delay and heat release profiles. Cetane number (ASTM D-613) is not found to be a strong indicator of ignition delay for the conditions investigated.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in SI Engines Using a Modified Quasi-Dimensional Model

1996-05-01
961187
This paper describes the use of a modified quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation code to predict the extent of cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion. The modifications primarily relate to the combustion model and include the following: 1. A flame kernel model was developed and implemented to avoid choosing the initial flame size and temperature arbitrarily. 2. Instead of the usual assumption of the flame being spherical, ellipsoidal flame shapes are permitted in the model when the gas velocity in the vicinity of the spark plug during kernel development is high. Changes in flame shape influence the flame front area and the interaction of the enflamed volume with the combustion chamber walls. 3. The flame center shifts due to convection by the gas flow in the cylinder. This influences the flame front area through the interaction between the enflamed volume and the combustion chamber walls. 4. Turbulence intensity is not uniform in cylinder, and varies cycle-to-cycle.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Development and Engine Performance with Breakdown Ignition Systems in a Visualization Engine

1988-02-01
880518
A conventional coil ignition system and two breakdown ignition systems with different electrode configurations were compared in M.I.T.'s transparent square piston engine. The purpose was to gain a deeper understanding of how the breakdown and glow discharge phases affect flame development and engine performance. The engine was operated with a standard intake valve and with a shrouded intake valve to vary the characteristic burning rate of the engine. Cylinder pressure data were used to characterize the ignition-system performance. A newly developed schlieren system which provides two orthogonal views of the developing flame was used to define the initial flame growth process. The study shows that ignition systems with higher breakdown energy achieve a faster flame growth during the first 0.5 ms after spark onset for all conditions studied.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Contribution of Oil Evaporation to Oil Consumption

2002-10-21
2002-01-2684
Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in automotive engines. Oil evaporating from the piston-ring-liner system is believed to contribute significantly to total oil consumption, especially during severe operating conditions. This paper presents an extensive experimental and theoretical study on the contribution of oil evaporation to total oil consumption at different steady state speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on coolant outlet temperature, oil volatility, and operating speed and load in a production spark ignition engine. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder variables for oil evaporation, such as liner temperature and cylinder pressure, were measured. A multi-species cylinder liner oil evaporation model was developed to interpret the oil consumption data.
Technical Paper

An Improved Friction Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0725
A spark-ignition engine friction model developed by Patton et al. in the late 1980s was evaluated against current engine friction data, and improved. The model, which was based on a combination of fundamental scaling laws and empirical results, includes predictions of rubbing losses from the crankshaft, reciprocating, and valvetrain components, auxiliary losses from engine accessories, and pumping losses from the intake and exhaust systems. These predictions were based on engine friction data collected between 1980 and 1988. Some of the terms are derived from lubrication theory. Other terms were derived empirically from measurements of individual friction components from engine teardown experiments. Recent engine developments (e.g., improved oils, surface finish on piston liners, valve train mechanisms) suggested that the model needed updating.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in Spark-Ignition Engines

1993-10-01
932708
This paper provides an overview of spark-ignition engine unburned hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, and then uses this framework to relate measured engine-out hydrocarbon emission levels to the processes within the engine from which they result. Typically, spark-ignition engine-out HC levels are 1.5 to 2 percent of the gasoline fuel flow into the engine; about half this amount is unburned fuel and half is partially reacted fuel components. The different mechanisms by which hydrocarbons in the gasoline escape burning during the normal engine combustion process are described and approximately quantified. The in-cylinder oxidation of these HC during the expansion and exhaust processes, the fraction which exit the cylinder, and the fraction oxidized in the exhaust port and manifold are also estimated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process

1995-02-01
950678
An analysis method for characterizing fuel behavior during spark-ignition engine starting has been developed and applied to several sets of start-up data. The data sets were acquired from modern production vehicles during room temperature engine start-up. Two different engines, two control schemes, and two engine temperatures (cold and hot) were investigated. A cycle-by-cycle mass balance for the fuel was used to compare the amount of fuel injected with the amount burned or exhausted as unburned hydrocarbons. The difference was measured as “fuel unaccounted for”. The calculation for the amount of fuel burned used an energy release analysis of the cylinder pressure data. The results include an overview of starting behavior and a fuel accounting for each data set Overall, starting occurred quickly with combustion quality, manifold pressure, and engine speed beginning to stabilize by the seventh cycle, on average.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in a Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1983-02-01
830587
The direct injection spark-ignition engine is the only internal combustion engine with the potential to equal the efficiency of the diesel and to tolerate a wide range of fuel types and fuel qualities without deterioration of performance. However, this engine has low combustion efficiency and excessive hydrocarbon emissions when operating at light load. In this paper, potential sources of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation are postulated and analyzed. The placement of fuel away from the primary combustion process in conjunction with a lack of secondary burnup are isolated as important hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms. Analyses show that increasing cylinder gas temperatures can improve secondary burnup of fuel which would reduce hydrocarbon emissions. Practical means to achieve this include higher compression ratio and use of ceramic parts in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption Behavior during Ramp Transients in a Production Spark Ignition Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3544
Engine oil consumption is recognized to be a significant source of pollutant emissions. Unburned or partially burned oil in the exhaust gases contributes directly to hydrocarbon and particulate emissions. In addition, chemical compounds present in oil additives poison catalytic converters and reduce their conversion efficiency. Oil consumption can increase significantly during critical non-steady operating conditions. This study analyzes the oil consumption behavior during ramp transients in load by combining oil consumption measurements, in-cylinder measurements, and computer-based modeling. A sulfur based oil consumption method was used to measure real-time oil consumption during ramp transients in load at constant speed in a production spark ignition engine. Additionally in-cylinder liquid oil behavior along the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1989-02-01
890156
Spark-ignition engine knock was characterized in terms of when during the engine cycle and combustion process knock occurred and its magnitude or intensity. Cylinder pressure data from a large number of successive individual cycles were generated from a single-cylinder engine of hemispherical chamber design over a range of operating conditions where knock occurred in some or all of these cycles. Mean values and distributions of following parameters were quantified: knock occurrence crank angle, knock intensity, combustion rate and the end-gas thermodynamic state. These parameters were determined from the cylinder pressure data on an individual cycle basis using a mass-burn-rate analysis. The effects of engine operating variables on these parameters were studied, and correlations between these parameters were examined.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Deposit Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972887
A dynamometer-mounted four-cylinder Saturn engine was used to accumulate combustion chamber deposits (CCD), using an additized fuel. During each deposit accumulation test, the HC emissions were continuously measured. The deposit thickness at the center of the piston was measured at the beginning of each day. After the 50 and 35-hour tests, HC emissions were measured with isooctane, benzene, toluene, and xylene, with the deposited engine, and again after the deposits had been cleaned from the engine. The HC emissions showed a rapid rise in the first 10 to 15 hours and stabilization after about 25 hours of deposit accumulation. The HC increase due to CCD accumulation accounted for 10 to 20% of the total engine-out HC emissions from the deposit build-up fuel and 10 to 30% from benzene, isooctane, toluene, and xylene, making CCDs a significant HC emissions source from this engine. The HC emissions stabilized long before the deposit thickness.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characterization in a Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine and Implications on Hydrocarbon Emissions

1989-09-01
892058
An experimental study was conducted on a direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) engine incorporating a combustion process similar to the Texaco Controlled Combustion System and operated with gasoline. Analysis of the injected fuel flow and the heat release showed that the combustion process was characterized by three distinct phases: fuel injection and distribution around the piston bowl, flame propagation through the stratified fuel-air mixture, and mixing-controlled burn-out with the heat-release rate proportional to the amount of unburned fuel in the combustion chamber. This characterization was consistent with previous visualization studies conducted on rapid-compression machines with similar configurations. Experiments with varied injection timing, spark plug location, and spark timing showed that the combustion timing relative to injection was critical to the hydrocarbon emissions from the engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Lean-Burn SI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0251
As part of ongoing research on hydrogen-enhanced lean burn SI engines, this paper details an experimental combustion system optimization program. Experiments focused on three key areas: the ignition system, in-cylinder charge motion produced by changes in the inlet ports, and uniformity of fuel-air mixture preparation. Hydrogen enhancement is obtained with a H2, CO, N2 mixture produced by a fuel reformer such as the plasmatron. The ignition system tests compared a standard inductive coil scheme against high-energy discharge systems. Charge motion experiments focused on the impact of different flow and turbulence patterns generated within the cylinder by restrictor plates at the intake port entrance, as well as novel inlet flow modification cones. The in-cylinder fluid motion generated by each configuration was characterized using swirl and tumble flow benches. Mixture preparation tests compared a standard single-hole pintle port fuel injector against a fine atomizing 12-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Current Developments in Spark-Ignition Engines

1976-02-01
760606
This paper reviews the major changes that have occurred in spark-ignition engine design and operation over the last two decades. The automobile air pollution problem, automobile emission standards, and automobile fuel economy standards -- the factors which have and are producing these changes -- are briefly described. The major components in spark-ignition engine emission control systems are outlined, and advances in carburetion, fuel injection, ignition systems, spark retard and exhaust gas recycle strategies, and catalytic converters, are reviewed. The impact of these emission controls on vehicle fuel economy is assessed. The potential for fuel economy improvements in conventional spark-ignition engines is examined, and promising developments in improved engine and vehicle matching are outlined.
Technical Paper

Design Parameters for Small Engines Based on Market Research

2018-09-10
2018-01-1717
Small internal combustion engines outperform batteries and fuel cells in regards to weight for a range of applications, including consumer products, marine vehicles, small manned ground vehicles, unmanned vehicles, and generators. The power ranges for these applications are typically between 1 kW and 10 kW. There are numerous technical challenges associated with engines producing power in this range resulting in low power density and high specific fuel consumption. As such, there is a large range of engine design solutions that are commercially available in this power range to overcome these technical challenges. A market survey was conducted of commercially available engines with power outputs less than 10 kW. The subsequent analysis highlights the trade-offs between power output, engine weight, and specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Friction Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

1989-02-01
890836
The details of a model which predicts friction mean effective pressure (fmep) for spark-ignition engines are described. The model, which was based on a combination of fundamental scaling laws and empirical results, includes predictions of rubbing losses from the crankshaft, reciprocating, and valvetrain components, auxiliary losses from engine accessories, and pumping losses from the intake and exhaust systems. For some predictions, it was possible to derive terms which were proportional to fmep based on lubrication theory. For other predictions, phenomenological terms which described the results of the processes rather than the processes themselves were used. Each of the predictions was “calibrated” using fmep data from published sources. The sum of these predictions gave reliable estimates of spark-ignition engine fmep and serves as a useful tool for understanding how the major engine design and operating variables affect individual component friction.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies

1986-03-01
860329
A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system has been developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder reciprocator diesel model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against available experimental engine test data. The use of the model is illustrated by predicting the performance gains and the component design trade-offs associated with a partially insulated engine achieving a 40 percent reduction in heat loss over a baseline cooled engine.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Knock Frequencies in Modern Engines Compared to Historical Data

2018-09-10
2018-01-1666
It is widely known that the rapid autoignition of end-gas will cause an engine cylinder to resonate, creating a knocking sound. These effects were quantified for a simple engine geometry in 1934 in a study where critical resonance frequencies were identified. That analysis, performed by Charles Draper, still forms the basis of most knock studies. However, the resonance frequencies are highly dependent on the engine geometry and the conditions inside the cylinder at autoignition. Since, engines and fuels operate at substantially different conditions than they did in 1934, it is expected that there should be a shift in knock frequencies. Experimental tests were run to collect knock data in an engine, representative of modern geometries, over a range of operating conditions for a number of different fuels. The operating conditions-intake air temperature, intake air pressure, and engine speed-were varied to identify shifts in the critical frequencies.
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