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Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

Accurate Speed Control of the DC Motor for Anti-Lock Braking System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0654
The permanent-magnet DC motor, which is directly connected to the hydraulic pump, is a significant component of hydraulic control unit (HCU) in an anti-lock braking system (ABS). It drives the pump to dump the brake fluid from the low-pressure accumulator back to master cylinder and makes sure the pressure decreases of wheel cylinder in ABS control. Obviously, the motor should run fast enough to provide sufficient power and prevent the low-pressure accumulator from fully charging. However, the pump don't need always run at full speed for the consideration of energy conservation and noise reduction. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately regulate the speed of the DC motor in order to improve quality of ABS control. In this paper, an accurate speed control algorithm was developed for the permanent-magnet DC motor of the ABS to implement the performance of the system, reduce the noise and save the energy in the meanwhile.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Chassis Control for Vehicle-Trailer Stability and Handling Performance

2004-05-04
2004-01-2046
To cope with the conflict requirements between the stability and handling performance, and the high-order and complex vehicle-trailer plant, a model tracking method is proposed. With this approach, a feedback control is designed to “decouple” the vehicle and the trailer plant, such that each tracks a well-defined second-order reference model independently yet coordinately. A feedforward control is designed to maintain its system steady-state performance. As a result, the proposed approach not only improves the system transient responses, but also its steady-state performance. This approach further yields a simple yet analytical control derivation that provides more insight to the system dynamics.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Journal Article

Design of Anti-lock Braking System Based on Regenerative Braking for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0816
In this article, the regenerative braking system is designed, which can realize the torque allocation between electric braking and hydraulic braking, where the cost function designed in this article considers factors of braking torque following effect, energy regenerative power, and hydraulic braking consumed power. In addition, a complete anti-lock braking system (ABS) is designed, which is based on regenerative braking. With the optimal slip ratio as control target, target wheel speed, control wheel speed, braking torque control strategy, and enable/disenable control logic of ABS are determined. By MATLAB/Simulink-DYNA4 co-simulation and real vehicle test, the feasibility and applicability of ABS based on regenerative braking are verified, under the condition of small severity of braking.
Technical Paper

Development of Active Control Strategy for Flat Tire Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0859
This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy.
Journal Article

Evaluation and Design of Electric/Electronic-Architectures of the Electric Vehicle

2016-06-17
2016-01-9143
The evaluation of electric vehicle electric/electronic-architectures (e/e-architectures) is the main topic of this paper. The electric vehicle is chosen as an example system, as it reflects the typical challenges of modern vehicle e/e-architecture development. The development of modern automotive technology also presents another important trend - vehicle electrification. New electric and electronic devices are developed and required in the automotive industry and control commands are exchanged by electric and electronic ones. The energy storage systems (ESS) properly reflect the above two aspects. The energy storage device also takes care of the peak loads, the high load dynamics, and it utilizes the braking energy in order to increase the efficiency. In this work a Li-ion battery and an ultracapacitor both are considered as energy storage devices.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control of Brake-by-Wire Systems Based on Control Allocation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0132
Brake-by-wire (BBW) system has drawn a great attention in recent years as driven by rapidly increasing demands on both active brake controls for intelligent vehicles and regenerative braking controls for electric vehicles. However, unlike conversional brake systems, the reliability of the brake-by-wire systems remains to be challenging due to its lack of physical connection in case of system failure. There are various causes for the failure of a BBW system, such as failure of brake controller, loss of sensor signals, failure of communication or even power supply, to name a few. This paper presents a fault-tolerant control under novel control architecture. The proposed control architecture includes a driver command interpreter module, a command integration module, a control allocation module, a fault diagnosis module and state observers. The fault-tolerant control is designed based on a quadratic optimal control method with consideration of actuator constraints.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study for a Vehicle-Trailer Backing Up Control

2004-05-04
2004-01-2080
A rear-wheel steer-by-wire mechanism has been applied to assist driver on backing up a vehicle with trailer. To address the issues related to the mechanical limitation on the rear-wheel steering angle, a comprehensive feasibility study has been conducted using analysis and simulation. Four modes of steering (front-wheel only steering, rear-wheel only steering, rear-wheel angle which is slave to front-wheel angle, and four wheel steering for backing control) are compared in terms of various parameters, such as achievable path curvature and hitch angle. Four wheel steering achieves the largest curvature range. Sensitivity to the variation in trailer tongue length also has been investigated. It is concluded that a proper driver interaction mechanism is needed to further assist the driver, since the ±12 degree limitation on rear-wheel only steering may not provide full counter-steer capability.
Journal Article

Function-Based Architecture Design for Next-Generation Automotive Brake Controls

2016-04-05
2016-01-0467
This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
Technical Paper

MPC-Based Trajectory Tracking Control for Intelligent Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0452
In this paper, a model predictive control (MPC) based trajectory tracking scheme utilizing steering wheel and braking or acceleration pedal is proposed for intelligent vehicles. The control objective is to track a desired trajectory which is obtained from the trajectory planner. The proposed control is based on a simplified third-order vehicle model, which consists of longitudinal vehicle dynamics along with a commonly used bicycle model. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is adopted in order to follow a given path by controlling front steering, braking and traction, while fulfilling various physical and design constraints. In order to reduce the computational burden, the NMPC is converted to a linear time-varying (LTV) MPC based on successive online linearization of the nonlinear system model. Two different test conditions have been used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches through simulations using Matlab and CarSim.
Journal Article

Map-Based Positioning Method for Vehicle Trajectory Control

2016-09-14
2016-01-1899
Aimed to provide an effective solution for control-oriented applications, this paper proposes a novel method using a high-precision digital map to achieve high-accuracy positioning with fast updating rate. First, the map is developed using a high-definition LiDAR (Velodyne HDL 64E) and a RTK-GNSS system, which contains lane-level waypoints, road width, curb and typical obstacles along the road. Next, a robust version of ICP (Iterative Closest Point) is proposed to clean the corresponding points of large errors on map matching (MM). Finally, based on the large set of data from the environmental map, an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is applied to fuse GNSS signal and dead reckoning (DR) to estimate the position. Thus the searching scope on the map can be considerably reduced so that the matching speed can be greatly improved. The high-precision digital map can be used not only for global path planning, but also for local driving detection and path planning.
Journal Article

Network Scheduling for Distributed Controls of Electric Vehicles Considering Actuator Dynamic Characteristics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0019
Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
Technical Paper

Personalized Eco-Driving for Intelligent Electric Vehicles

2018-08-07
2018-01-1625
Minimum energy consumption with maximum comfort driving experience define the ideal human mobility. Recent technological advances in most Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) on electric vehicles not only present a significant opportunity for automated eco-driving but also enhance the safety and comfort level. Understanding driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system comfort. This research focuses on the personalized and green adaptive cruise control for intelligent electric vehicle, which is also known to be MyEco-ACC. MyEco-ACC is based on the optimization of regenerative braking and typical driving styles. Firstly, a driving style model is abstracted as a Hammerstein model and its key parameters vary with different driving styles. Secondly, the regenerative braking system characteristics for the electric vehicle equipped with 4-wheel hub motors are analyzed and braking force distribution strategy is designed.
Journal Article

Power Assisted Braking Control Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

2016-04-05
2016-01-1644
This paper presents a power assisted braking control based on a novel mechatronic booster system. A brake pedal feel control unit is first discussed which includes a pedal emulator with an angular sensor to detect driver’s pedal travel, a signal processing module with a Kalman filter for sensor signal conditioning, and a driver braking intention detection and behavior recognition module based on the displacement and velocity of the pedal travel. A power assisted braking control is then presented as the core of the system which consists of controls on basic power assist, velocity compensation and friction compensation. The friction is estimated based on a generic algorithm offline. A motor controller is designed to provide the desired torque for the power assist. Finally, a novel mechatronic booster system is designed and built with an experimental platform set up with a widely adopted rapid prototype system using dSPACE products, such as MicroAutoBox, RapidPro, etc.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Automatic Test of AEB with Brake System in the Loop

2018-04-03
2018-01-1450
The limitation of drivers' attention and perception may bring collision dangers, Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) can help drivers to avoid the potential collisions through active braking. Since the positive effect of it, motor corporations have begun to equip their vehicles with the system, and regulatory agencies in various countries have introduced test standards. At this stage, the actuator of AEB usually adopts Electronic Stability Program (ESP), but it poor performance of continuous working period and active pressure built-up for all wheels limits its implements. Electromechanical brake booster can realize power assisted brake without relying on the vacuum source and a variety of specific power curves. Moreover it can achieve the active braking with a rapid response, which make it can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1565
A vehicle dynamics stability control system based on integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (I-EHB) system with hierarchical control architecture and nonlinear control method is designed to improve the vehicle dynamics stability under extreme conditions in this paper. The I-EHB system is a novel brake-by-wire system, and is suitable to the development demands of intelligent vehicle technology and new energy vehicle technology. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensures that the pressures in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
Technical Paper

Research on a Novel Electro-Hydraulic Brake System and Pressure Control Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0764
Based on the research and analysis of the current brake systems, this paper presents a novel electro-hydraulic brake system, which can better meet the functional requirements. The system mainly contains a master cylinder, two brake hydraulic cylinders and drive motors, two transmission mechanisms, thirteen solenoid valves, pedal force simulator, etc. Since the proposed brake system uses a dual motor along with two brake hydraulic cylinders, it has advantages in providing fast pressure response, flexible working modes, high precision and strong fault tolerance. In order to facilitate the study of pressure control algorithm for the proposed brake system, a mathematical model of the brake system is firstly established, then a multiplexed time-division pressure control algorithm is proposed to realize the simultaneous or partially simultaneous pressure control, which ensures the high precision and short response time.
Technical Paper

Steering Control Based on the Yaw Rate and Projected Steering Wheel Angle in Evasion Maneuvers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0030
When automobiles are at the threat of collisions, steering usually needs shorter longitudinal distance than braking for collision avoidance, especially under the condition of high speed or low adhesion. Thus, more collision accidents can be avoided in the same situation. The steering assistance is in need since the operation is hard for drivers. And considering the dynamic characteristics of vehicles in those maneuvers, the real-time and the accuracy of the assisted algorithms is essential. In view of the above problems, this paper first takes lateral acceleration of the vehicle as the constraint, aiming at the collision avoidance situation of the straight lane and the stable driving inside the curve, and trajectory of the collision avoidance is derived by a quintic polynomial.
Technical Paper

Studies on Brake Pedal Feeling Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

2016-04-05
2016-01-0014
Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
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