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Technical Paper

An Accelerated Carburizing Process

One of the most important heat treating processes is steel carburizing. However, the relatively long process times makes carburizing (and related thermochemical processes) a particularly energy consumptive and expensive process. Thus, if significant reductions in process times or temperatures can be achieved, this would result in substantial product cost savings and reduced energy consumption. Various methods of accelerating the carburizing process have been reported previously including: the use of rare earth metals, optimization by computer control of endo gas composition, use of superficial nitriding and others. In this paper, an overview of a new process using a hydrocarbon decomposition reaction catalyst that results in substantial diffusion rate acceleration and/or the potential use of significantly lower carburization temperatures will be discussed.

Automotive Lubricants and Testing

This new book provides a comprehensive overview of various lubrication aspects of a typical powertrain system including the engine, transmission, driveline, chassis, and other components. The manual addresses major issues and current development status of automotive lubricant test methods. Topics also cover advanced lubrication and tribochemistry of the powertrain system, such as diesel fuel lubrication, specialized automotive lubricant testing development, filtration testing of automotive lubricants, lubrication of constant velocity joints, and biodegradable automotive lubricants.
Technical Paper

Determination of biodiesel oxidation stability of biodiesel B100 with optical spectroscopies of eletronic absorption UV-Visible correlation with Rancimat method DIN EN 14112

Biodiesel is a biodegradable fuel that consists of alkyl esters, obtained from renewable sources, vegetal oil and animal fats reacting with a short-chain of aliphatic alcohols (typically methanol or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst (reaction known as transesterification). An important property to use the biodiesel as fuel in diesel engines is its oxidation stability because biodiesel can contain unsaturated fatty acids, which are susceptible to oxidation, being able to change into polymerized compounds, which can cause engine problems such as blocked fuel filters. Numerous analytical methods have been applied to determine oxidation stability, European Union and Brazil use the same method DIN EN 14112 - known as Rancimat method that consists in the sample heating to 110°C where the products formed by the decomposition are blown inside by a flow of air in to measurement cell with distilled water.

Fuels and Lubricants Handbook: Technology, Properties, Performance, and Testing

This well-referenced handbook is comprehensive, in-depth, and provides a detailed overview of ALL of the important ASTM and non-ASTM fuels and lubricants test procedures. Readers will get a thorough overview of the application-related properties being tested and an extensive discussion of the principles behind the tests and their relationship to the properties themselves. A must-have for anyone in the industry involved in the formulation, use, and specification of fuels and lubricants. The information is subdivided into four sections: Petroleum Refining Processes for Fuels and Lubricant Basestocks Fuels Hydrocarbons and Synthetic Lubricants Performance/Property Testing Procedures
Technical Paper

Lubrication Applications of Coat Forming Additives

One of the ongoing needs in the materials industry is to facilitate significant production cost saving due to energy usage. One way to do this is to use the thermal energy generally emitted during heat treatment to facilitate additive reactions with the material surface. This has been successfully done by formulating specific lubricity additives into on a oil or aqueous quenching media. When the material is heated and subsequently quenched, the lubricity additive will then react with the surface providing substantial improvements in lubricity. This process is called: “coat forming”. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of coat forming reactions, additives, and subsequent application performance.
Technical Paper

Performance Map Characterization of Lubricating Oils — Characterization of Gear Lubricants Formulated from Different Base Oils

One of the challenges in lubricant development is to adequately model performance across a broad range of potential lubrication and wear regimes that are encountered in use. Since wear in a given application is dependent on both rolling and sliding speeds, it is desirable to determine lubricant performance as a function of these variables. The use of a new test machine and methodology permits the construction of performance maps which define the transitions between lubrication regimes - hydrodynamic/elastohydrodynamic (EHD), EHD/mixed film and mixed film/boundary. This paper describes a method of mapping out the performance of a lubricant over a range of rolling and sliding velocities. Lubrication and wear performance is characterized for an ester base reference fluid (Herco-A) and two commercially available gear oils based on a petroleum oil and a poly(alpha olefin).