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Technical Paper

Effect of Ashless Dispersant on the Morphology, Size, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Exhaust Particles

The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of ashless dispersant of lube oils on diesel exhaust particles. Emphasis is placed on particle size, morphology, nanostructure and graphitization degree. Three kinds of lube oils with different percentages of ashless dispersant were used in a two-cylinder diesel engine. Ashless dispersant (T154), which is widely used in petrochemical industry, were added into baseline oil at different blend percentages (4.0% and 8.0% by weight) to improve lubrication and cleaning performance. A high resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and a Raman spectroscopy were employed to analyze and compare particle characteristics. According to the experiment results, primary particles diameter ranges from 3 nm to 65 nm, and the diameter distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution. When the ashless dispersant was used, the primary particles diameter decrease obviously at both 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lube Oil Film Thickness on Spray/Wall Impingement with Diesel, M20 and E20 Fuels

Spray impacting on a lube oil film with a finite thickness is a common phenomenon in IC engines and plays a critical role in the fuel-air mixture process and combustion. With the use of early injection strategy to achieve HCCI combustion mode in diesel engines, this phenomenon becomes more and more prominent. In addition, oxygenated fuels such as methanol and ethanol are regarded as alternative fuel and additives to improve the overall performance of HCCI engine. Therefore, a better understanding about the role of lube oil film thickness in methanol-diesel and ethanol-diesel blended fuels spray/wall impingement is helpful for accumulating experimental data to establish a more accurate spray/wall impingement model and optimize the combustion in HCCI engines. In this paper, the effect of lube oil film thickness on the characteristics of spray/wall impingement of different fuels are investigated in a constant volume bomb test system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lubricating Oil Volatile Fractions on Diesel Particle Emissions

In this study, the effect of volatile fractions from engine lubricating oil on diesel particle emissions were studied experimentally. One commercial CF lubricating oil was used and distilled to subtract the different volatile fractions with boiling temperature of 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C, respectively. Oils derived from this distillation process were applied as the lubricating oil and following engine experiments were conducted. Diesel primary particles were sampled with a costume designed thermophoretic system. A fast response particulate spectrum equipment was employed to study the size distribution and number concentration of particles in the exhaust. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the size distribution of the primary diesel particles relates to different oil volatile fractions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lube Oil Sulfur and Ash on Size, Morphology and Element Composition of Diesel Particles

In this paper, the influence of sulfur and ash fraction of lubricating oil on particle emissions was investigated via experimental works. Especially, we focus on the characterizations like size distribution, morphology and element composition in diesel particles. All of the research was done on a two-cylinder diesel engine under different load conditions. Five kinds of lubricating oils with different levels of sulfur and ash fraction were used in this study, among which a kind of 5W-30 (ACEA, C1) oil was used as baseline oil. Diesel primary particles were collected by thermophoretic system, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum technique, respectively. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the sulfur and ash change the primary particle emissions directly.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricating Oil Metallic Content on Morphology, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles

In this paper, the influences of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a 2.22 Liter, two cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 65 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study the Influence of EP Antiwear Additive on Particle Emissions in Diesel Engines

We studied the influence of extreme pressure (EP) antiwear additive on the emission and distribution of particulate matters (PMs), since EP antiwear additive is necessary to improve the property of lubricating oil with the downsizing development of engines. We used a four-cylinder, turbocharged, and inter-cooled system with SAE15W-40 lubricant diesel engine. Pure diesel and fuel blends with varying weight percentages (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) of EP antiwear additive were used. Engine speed increased by increments of 400 from 1,200 rpm to 2,800 rpm under medium load and full load. The DMS500 was used to acquire particle data, and the Wave Book was employed to record oil and cylinder pressure. Conclusions drawn from the experiments suggest that EP antiwear additive has significant effects on PM emissions and distributions. Increments and decrements were observed on the number of accumulation mode particles and nucleation mode particles with BDAW-0.5.