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Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

A Study of Control Strategy for Combution Mode Switching Between HCCI and SI With the Blowdown Supercharging System

To find an ignition and combustion control strategy in a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine equipped with the BlowDown SuperCharging (BDSC) system which is previously proposed by the authors, a one-dimensional HCCI engine cycle simulator capable of predicting the ignition and heat release of HCCI combustion was developed. The ignition and the combustion models based on Livengood-Wu integral and Wiebe function were implemented in the simulator. The predictive accuracy of the developed simulator in the combustion timing, combustion duration and heat release rate was validated by comparing to experimental results. Using the developed simulator, the control strategy for the engine operating mode switching between HCCI and SI combustion was explored with focus attention on transient behaviors of air-fuel ratio, A/F, and gas-fuel ratio, G/F.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Compression Ratio SI Engine Equipped with a Variable Piston Crank Mechanism for Knocking Mitigation

To avoid knocking phenomena, a special crank mechanism for gasoline engine that allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC (Top Dead Center) was developed and experimentally demonstrated in the previous study. As a result, knocking was successfully mitigated and indicated thermal efficiency was improved [1],[2],[3],[4]. However, performance of the proposed system was evaluated at only limited operating conditions. In the present study, to investigate the effect of piston movement near TDC on combustion characteristics and indicated thermal efficiency and to clarify the knock mitigation mechanism of the proposed method, experimental studies were carried out using a single cylinder engine with a compression ratio of 13.7 at various engine speeds and loads. The special crank mechanism, which allows piston to move rapidly near TDC developed in the previous study, was applied to the test engine with some modification of tooling accuracy.
Journal Article

A Study of Low Speed Preignition Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Gasoline Engines

The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
Journal Article

A Study of Newly Developed HCCI Engine With Wide Operating Range Equipped With Blowdown Supercharging System

To extend the operating range of a gasoline HCCI engine, the blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system and the EGR guide were developed and experimentally examined. The concepts of these techniques are to obtain a large amount of dilution gas and to generate a strong in-cylinder thermal stratification without an external supercharger for extending the upper load limit of HCCI operation whilst keeping dP/dθmax and NOx emissions low. Also, to attain stable HCCI operation using the BDSC system with wide operating conditions, the valve actuation strategy in which the amount of dilution gas is smaller at lower load and larger at higher load was proposed. Additionally to achieve multi-cylinder HCCI operation with wide operating range, the secondary air injection system was developed to reduce cylinder-to-cylinder variation in ignition timing. As a result, the acceptable HCCI operation could be achieved with wide operating range, from IMEP of 135 kPa to 580 kPa.
Technical Paper

A Study of Rotary Valve for a Single Cylinder Engine

The authors have experimentally produced a new type of Rotary Valve (ca11ed R.V.) which has a unique gas sealing mechanism. In this study, first, the mechanical loss in the valve train was measured comparing to that of the poppet valve drive train, and it was found that the mechanical loss of rotary valve train is much lower level. Secondary, three dimensional numerical calculation of the flow field from the intake-port to in-cylinder during the intake stroke was carried out. As a result, it was found that the flow field is very complicated due to the interaction between the moving piston and valve and that the profiles of “valve notch” and intake port affect the flow field and then, the modification of profile with a round edge form of the “notch” enables higher mass flow rate.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion Characteristics of DISC Rotary Engine Using a Model Combustion Chamber

A model combustion chamber of Wankel type rotary engine was employed to study the DISC RE system. A two-stroke Diesel engine's cylinder head was replaced with this combustion chamber to simulate temporal change of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber as an actual engine. The base engine was motorized to operate as a continuous rapid compression and expansion machine. Pilot fuel spray was injected onto a glow plug to form a pilot flame and it ignites the main fuel spray. The ignitability of pilot fuel, mixture formation process, ignition process of main fuel by pilot flame and the effect of pilot and main injection timings on combustion characteristics were examined.
Technical Paper

A Study on New Combustion Method of High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine

A new combustion method of high compression ratio SI engine was studied and proposed in order to achieve higher thermal efficiency of SI engine comparable to that of CI engine. Compression ratio of SI engine is generally restricted by the knocking phenomena. A combustion chamber profile and a cranking mechanism are studied to avoid knocking with high compression ratio. Since reducing the end-gas temperature will suppress knocking, a combustion chamber was considered to have a wide surface at the end-gas region. However, wide surface will lead to high heat loss, which may cancel the gain of higher compression ratio operation. Thereby, a special cranking mechanism was adopted which allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the cranking mechanism for achieving higher thermal efficiency. An elliptic gear system and a leaf-shape gear system were employed in the simulations.
Technical Paper

A Trial of Improving Thermal Efficiency by Active Piston Control -Speed Control Effect of Combustion Chamber Volume Variation on Thermal Efficiency-

In reciprocating internal combustion engines, the piston stops in a moment at top dead center (TDC), so there exists a necessary time to proceed combustion. However more slowing piston motion around TDC, does it have a possibility to produce the following effects? The slowed piston motion may expedite combustion proceed and increase cylinder pressure. This may lead to an increase of degree of constant volume. As a result, thermal efficiency may be improved. In order to verify this idea, two types of engines were tested. The first engine attained high cylinder pressure as expected. The P-V diagram formed an almost ideal Otto cycle. However, this did not contribute to the improvement in the thermal efficiency. Then the second engine with further slower piston motion by active piston control was tested in order to examine the above reason.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

The objective of this study is to extend the high load operation limit of a gasoline HCCI engine. A new system extending the high load HCCI operation limit was proposed, and the performance of the system was experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of two new techniques. The first one is the “Blow-down super charging (BDSC) system”, in which, EGR gas can be super charged into a cylinder during the early stage of compression stroke by using the exhaust blow-down pressure wave from another cylinder phased 360 degrees later/earlier in the firing order. The other one is “EGR guide” for generating a large thermal stratification inside the cylinder to reduce the rate of in-cylinder pressure rise (dP/dθ) at high load HCCI operation. The EGR guides consist of a half-circular part attached on the edge of the exhaust ports and the piston head which has a protuberant surface to control the mixing between hot EGR gas and intake air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

Analysis of DISC Combustion Using a Pilot Flame Ignition System

A new DISC combustion system with a pilot flame for ignition was analyzed by using a model combustion chamber of a Wankel type rotary engine. A two-stroke diesel engine's cylinder head was replaced with this combustion chamber to simulate temporal changes of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber as in actual engines. Two types of fuel injection systems were tested to obtain combustion characteristics such as the heat release rate. Direct photographs of spray and combustion were analyzed to understand the mixture-formation process of the main spray and to see the flame temperature distribution and flame moving velocity vectors. In order to understand the mixture-formation process, numerical calculations were made using a gaseous fuel. Finally, the effect of the fuel characteristics on combustion was examined using diesel fuel and n- hexane.
Technical Paper

Analysis of DISC Rotary Engine Combustion Using Improved Pilot Flame Ignition System

In order to enhance the reliability of a pilot flame ignition system, three kinds of subchambers in which a pilot injector and a glow plug were set up were tested with a model combustion chamber of DISC rotary engine. A two-stroke Diesel engine's cylinder head was replaced with this model combustion chamber to simulate temporal changes of air flow and pressure fields inside the chamber as an actual engine. The behavior of the pilot flame generated in the subchamber, ignition process of main fuel spray by the pilot flame, the most suitable mixture distribution between the main chamber and the subchamber, and the effect of nozzle diameter of main injector on combustion characteristics were studied by using a high-speed video camera and ion probes.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a PFI Motorcycle Engine

PFI (Port Fuel Injection) gasoline engines for motorcycles have some problems such as slow transient response because of wall wet of fuel caused by the injector's layout. Hence, it is important to understand the characteristics of fuel sprays such as droplet size and distribution of fuel concentration. Considering the spray formation in a port, there are three kinds of the essential elements: breakup, evaporation and wall impingement. However, it is difficult to observe three of them at the same time. Therefore, the authors have made research step by step. In the authors' previous study, the authors focused on the wall collision, droplet sizes, droplet speeds and the space distribution of the droplets. In this study, the authors focused on evaporation. A direct sampling method using FID (Flame Ionization Detector) for evaporating fuel was established and the concentration distribution of evaporating fuel in the port was measured and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process with a Swirl-Type Injector

A swirl-type injector is commonly used for the gasoline direct injection IC engines. To control and optimize the engine combustion, analyses of mixture formation process inside the cylinder are quite important. In this study, an evaluation of a DDM (Discrete Droplet Model) including breakup and evaporation sub-models has been made by making comparisons between the calculation and measurement. In the calculation, two kinds of initial conditions were tested; one was from empirical expressions and the other was from calculated results using a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) model that had a feature to examine the free fluid surface of a liquid fuel spray. As a result, the authors have found that a DDM can basically explain the spray formation process. However, much further modification of the breakup model and initial conditions would be required to have a quantitatively good agreement between the calculation and measurement
Technical Paper

Charge Transfer Pathways in Thermalization Process of a Resistive Particulate Matter Sensor

Resistive particulate matter sensor (PMS) is a promising solution for the diagnosis of diesel/gasoline particulate filter (DPF/GPF) functionality. Frequently triggered regeneration of their sensing element, for cleaning the soot dendrites deposited on the surface, leads to experience high temperature and thermal stress and pose high risk of developing cracks in the electrodes or sensing substrate. A semiconductor with a dopant concentration of 100 ppm~10000 ppm is applied as a sensing element for PMS self-diagnosis. Upon cooling at air, the polarization doped-insulating layer in a resistive PMS starts to resume the electrical conductivity in the wake of experiencing high regeneration temperature, through the electron and hole directional mobility.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Using Spark Ignition and Pilot Flame Ignition Systems

A Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (DISC-RE) with a pilot flame ignition system which has high ignition energy, large flame contact area and long duration of ignition source, has been examined comparing with a spark ignition system, using a model combustion chamber simulating a DISC-RE. As a result, it was found that the combustion using the pilot flame ignition system was activated and that a better ignitability was attained under lean mixture conditions than using a spark ignition system. To analyze these experimental results, numerical calculations of the mixture formation and combustion process were carried out. Numerical analyses proved that the pilot flame ignition system was superior to the spark ignition system as the pilot flame ignition made large-area ignition source and large inflammable mixture region. Finally, a single rotor with 650 cc displacement DISC-RE was built as a prototype.
Journal Article

Development of a Novel Ignition System Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges: Application to a SI Engine

A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems. Experiments were conducted using spherically expanding flame configuration for CH4 and C3H8-air mixtures under various conditions. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses. The authors seek for the mechanisms for improving the inflammability in more detail to optimize ignition system, and verify the effectiveness of IES circuit in EGR condition, for real engine use.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Ignition System Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges: Ignition Characteristics of Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Mixtures

A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with static induction thyristor at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IEC circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. In this paper, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems. The experiments were conducted using spherically expanding flame configuration for CH4 and C3H8-air mixtures under various conditions. In conclusions, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to extend lean flammability limits compared with conventional spark ignition systems. In addition, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges could shorten ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Water and Intake Air Temperatures on Thermal Efficiency of Gasoline Engines

An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.