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Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Synthesis Control Strategy for Active Four-Wheel Steering Based on Multi-Body Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-0603
Active steering systems can help the driver to master critical driving situations. This paper presents a fuzzy logic control strategy on active steering vehicle based on a multi-body vehicle dynamic model. The multi-body vehicle dynamic model using ADAMS can accurately predict the dynamic performance of the vehicle. A new hybrid steering scheme including both active front steering (applying an additional front steering angle besides the driver input) and rear steering is presented to control both yaw velocity and sideslip angle. A set of fuzzy logic rules is designed for the active steering controller, and the fuzzy controller can adjust both sideslip angle and yaw velocity through the co-simulation between ADAMS and the Matlab fuzzy control unit with the optimized membership function. To ensure the design of high-quality fuzzy control rules, a rule optimization strategy is introduced.
Technical Paper

A Polynomial Chaos- Based Likelihood Approach for Parameter Estimation of Load Sensing Proportional Valve

2013-04-08
2013-01-0948
As there are a variety of uncertainty contained in dynamic systems, this paper presents a method to identify the uncertain parameters of Load Sensing Proportional Valve in a heavy truck brake system. This method is derived from polynomial chaos theory and uses the maximum likelihood approach to estimate the most likely value of uncertain parameters, such as equivalent bearing area diameter of the diaphragm, preload of return spring and so on. The maximum likelihood estimates are obtained through minimizing the cost function derived from the prior probability for the measurement noise. Direct stochastic collocation has been shown to be more efficient than Galerkin approach in the simulation of systems with large number of uncertain parameters. The simulation model of Load Sensing Proportional Valve is built in software AMESim based on logic structure of the valve. The uncertain parameters are estimated through the simulation results which are treated as measurements.
Journal Article

A Polynomial Chaos-Based Method for Recursive Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation of Load Sensing Proportional Valve

2014-04-01
2014-01-0721
In this paper, a new computational method is provided to identify the uncertain parameters of Load Sensing Proportional Valve (LSPV) in a heavy truck brake system by using the polynomial chaos theory. The simulation model of LSPV is built in the software AMESim depending on structure of the valve, and the estimation process is implemented relying on the experimental measurements by pneumatic bench test. With the polynomial chaos expansion carried out by collocation method, the output observation function of the nonlinear pneumatic model can be transformed into a linear and time-invariant form, and the general recursive functions based on Newton method can therefore be reformulated to fit for the computer programming and calculation. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified with reference to Simulated Annealing algorithm by introducing the Metropolis Principle to control the fluctuation during the estimation process and escape from the local minima.
Journal Article

An Improved Human Biodynamic Model Considering the Interaction between Feet and Ground

2015-04-14
2015-01-0612
Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
Technical Paper

FSAE Race Car Dynamics and Trajectory Optimization Considering Aerodynamic Effects

2018-04-03
2018-01-0821
The aerodynamic effects not only directly affect the acceleration and the fuel economy of the race car, but also have a great influence on the handling of the race car. In this paper, the vehicle multibody dynamic model with “double-wishbone suspension” and “rack and pinion steering” is established, in order to obtain aerodynamic parameters, the aerodynamic model of the vehicle is established, and the aerodynamic parameters were calculated by using CFD. In order to obtain the optimal travel track, the track model is established, according to weights allocation of the smallest curvature of each curve and the shortest curve to optimize the optimal route for racing. The influence of aerodynamic effects on the stability of vehicle control is analyzed through simulation of Endurance Racing to evaluate the maximum lateral acceleration、roll angle and other performance.
Technical Paper

In-Plane Flexible Ring Tire Model Development for Ride Comfort & Braking/Driving Performance Analysis under Straight-line Driving Condition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0628
Vehicle tire performance is an important consideration for vehicle handling, stability, mobility, and ride comfort as well as durability. Significant efforts have been dedicated to tire modeling in the past, but there is still room to improve its accuracy. In this study, a detailed in-plane flexible ring tire model is proposed, where the tire belt is discretized, and each discrete belt segment is considered as a rigid body attached to a number of parallel tread blocks. The mass of each belt segment is accumulated at its geometric center. To test the proposed in-plane tire model, a full-vehicle model is integrated with the tire model for simulation under a special driving scenario: acceleration from rest for a few seconds, then deceleration for a few seconds on a flat-level road, and finally constant velocity on a rough road. The simulation results indicate that the tire model is able to generate tire/road contact patch forces that yield reasonable vehicle dynamic responses.
Technical Paper

In-Plane Parameter Relationship between the 2D and 3D Flexible Ring Tire Models

2017-03-28
2017-01-0414
In this paper, a detailed three dimensional (3D) flexible ring tire model is first proposed which includes a rigid rim with thickness, different layers of discretized belt points and a number of massless tread blocks attached on the belt. The parameters of the proposed 3D tire model can be divided into in-plane parameters and out-of-plane parameters. In this paper, the relationship of the in-plane parameters between the 3D tire model and the 2D tire model is determined according to the connections among the tire components. Based on the determined relationship, it is shown that the 3D tire model can produce almost the same prediction results as the 2D tire model for the in-plane tire behaviors.
Journal Article

Modeling Air-Spring Suspension System of the Truck Driver Seat

2014-04-01
2014-01-0846
The suspension system of a heavy truck's driver seat plays an important role to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the seat occupant from the cab floor. Air-spring is widely used in the seat suspension system, for the reason that its spring rate is variable and it can make the seat suspension system keep constant ‘tuned’ frequency compared to the conventional coil spring. In this paper, vibration differential equation of air-spring system with auxiliary volume is derived, according to the theory of thermodynamic, hydrodynamics. The deformation-load static characteristic curves of air-spring is obtained, by using a numerical solution method. Then, the ADAMS model of the heavy truck's driver seat suspension system is built up, based on the structure of the seat and parameters of the air-spring and the shock-absorber. At last, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results and the test results, considering the seat acceleration PSD and RMS value.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic System with Fuzzy Uncertain Parameters

2010-04-12
2010-01-0913
Hydraulic systems are popular on vehicles, such as power steering, shock absorbers, brakes, etc. Many previously works have been done on the modeling and simulation of the hydraulic systems. However, these models and parameters are usually established on the basis of plans, drawings, measurements, observations, experiences, expert knowledge and standards, and so on. In general, certain information and precise values do not exist. Uncertainty may result, e.g., from human mistakes and errors in the manufacture, from the use and maintenance of constructions, from expert evaluations, and from a lack of information. Actually, many uncertain factors will lead to great errors, and may have great effect on the hydraulic system, so the research on the hydraulic system under uncertainties is very necessary. In this paper, fuzzy algorithm is introduced to analysis the response of the hydraulic system with uncertain parameters.
Journal Article

Modeling, Experimentation and Sensitivity Analysis of a Pneumatic Brake System in Commercial Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0295
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the optimal design of pipeline diameter in an air brake system in order to reduce the response time for driving safety using DOE (Design of Experiment) method. To achieve this purpose, this paper presents the development and validation of a computer-aided analytical dynamic model of a pneumatic brake system in commercial vehicles. The brake system includes the subsystems for brake pedal, treadle valve, quick release valve, load sensing proportional valve and brake chamber, and the simulation models for individual components of the brake system are established within the multi-domain physical modeling software- AMESim based on the logic structure. An experimental test bench was set up by connecting each component with the nylon pipelines based on the actual layout of the 4×2 commercial vehicle air brake system.
Technical Paper

Multi-domain Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Power Steering System Based on Modelica

2010-04-12
2010-01-0271
Hydraulic power steering system, which can reduce the steering hand force by applying the output from a hydraulic actuator, has been widely used in vehicles. In this paper, a detailed steer model including steering column, steering trapezium, and detailed hydraulic power steering system which is consisting of steering cylinder, relief valve, rotary valve, pump and hydraulic lines were established, and a multi-body model of a heavy truck was established to connect with the hydraulic power steering system. Modelica simulation language, which can be efficiently used to investigate multi-domain problems, was used to in the modeling and simulation of the power steering system and the vehicle. The simulation was carried out to identify the effects of design variables on the lateral stability of the vehicle. The application of Modelica for investigating multi-domain problems is also demonstrated.
Journal Article

Optimization of Suspension Elastomeric Bushing Compliance Under Constraints of Handling, Ride and Durability

2010-04-12
2010-01-0721
Elastomeric bushings are widely used in the passenger cars to make the cars have an ideal vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance. However, elastomeric bushings also influence on the vehicle handling, ride and the durability performance of each component in the vehicle suspension system. It is relatively easy and cost effective to change the compliance of the bushing components compared with other method because they are made of elastomeric materials. The design of an elastomeric bushing is really a big challenge. One of the main difficulties comes from the different target compliance is wanted according to the handling, ride and durability demand at each different orientation (indicated by X Y Z) of the bushing. In this paper the following procedure was used for optimization of suspension elastomeric bushing compliance. Firstly, a detailed multi-body model was built including the nonlinear bushing effects and lower control arm flexibility.
Technical Paper

Parameter Sensitivity Analysis of a Light Duty Truck Steering Returnability Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0428
Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
Journal Article

Ride Optimization for a Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0843
The ride comfort of the commercial vehicle is mainly affected by several vibration isolation systems such as the primary suspension system, engine mounting system and the cab mounting system. A rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck was built and analyzed in multi-body environment (ADAMS). The method applying the excitation on the wheels center and the engine mountings in time domain was presented. The variables' effects on the ride performance were studied by design of experiment (DOE). The optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/View, iSIGHT and Matlab. It was found that the vertical root mean square (RMS) acceleration and frequency-weighted RMS acceleration on the seat track were reduced about 17% and 11% respectively at different speeds relative to baseline according to ISO 2631-1.
Technical Paper

Robust Design Optimization of an Shock Absorber for Enhancing Ride Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0995
There are many uncertain parameters in shock absorbers, which are induced by the manufacturing error, the wear of components and the aging of materials in real vehicle environment. These uncertainties often cause some deterioration of vehicle performance. To optimize the ride characteristic of a vehicle when the shock absorber includes uncertain parameters, the robust design method is used. In this paper, a Twin Tube shock absorber fluid system model has established on the multi-domain modeling environment. This model not only includes the commonly used parameters of the shock absorber but also takes into account the structure parameters of various valves in the shock absorber, which is more detailed and accurate than those models in the past literature. The robust design of the shock absorber parameters is successfully approached using the co-simulation technique, and the ride comfort performance of the vehicle is also improved.
Journal Article

Robust Design of a Pneumatic Brake System in Commercial Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0408
The air brake system has been widely used since its great superiority over many other kinds of brake systems, but the capacity and the stability of air brake system are determined by many factors which are always uncertain and difficult to be evaluated accurately. So it is necessary to improve the robustness of this kind of brake system. In this paper, a physical model of air brake control system is made by a multi-domain physical modeling software-AMESim and the robust design for air brake system is carried out. Firstly, the key design parameters that will greatly affect on the delay time and pressure that leads to the shaking problem are obtained by using the method of design of experiment (DOE). Then, the regress of the response surface based on results of DOE and the robust design using the tolerance design are carried out. The value for those key parameters that can lead to the best performance and robustness of the air brake system are finally determined.
Technical Paper

Sprung Mass Identification of Suspension in a Simplified Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0051
This paper describes a simplified model to identify sprung mass using golden section method, the model treats the unsprung mass vertical acceleration as input and the sprung mass vertical acceleration as output, which can avoid the nonlinear influence of trye. Unsprung mass can be also calculated by axle load and the identified sprung mass. This study carries out road test on the vehicle ride comfort and takes a scheme that the group of 20 km/h is used to identify sprung mass and the group of 80 km/h is used to verify the identification result. The similarity of the results from the simulation and experiments performed are, for the sprung mass, 98.59%. A conclusion can be drawn that the simple method to measure the sprung mass in the suspension systems in used vehicles, such as the vehicle shown here, is useful, simple and has sufficient precision.
Technical Paper

Studies of Air Spring Mathematical Model and its Performance in Cab Suspension System of Commercial Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0608
The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the air spring is presented. The amplitude and frequency dependency of the air spring's stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiment and the simulation. The co-simulation method of ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the air spring mathematical model into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
Journal Article

Suspension Kinematic/Compliance Uncertain Optimization Using a Chebyshev Polynomial Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0432
The optimization of vehicle suspension kinematic/compliance characteristics is of significant importance in the chassis development. Practical suspension system contains many uncertainties which may result from poorly known or variable parameters or from uncertain inputs. However, in most suspension optimization processes these uncertainties are not accounted for. This study explores the use of Chebyshev polynomials to model complex nonlinear suspension systems with interval uncertainties. In the suspension model, several kinematic and compliance characteristics are considered as objectives to be optimized. Suspension bushing characteristics are considered as design variables as well as uncertain parameters. A high-order response surface model using the zeros of Chebyshev polynomials as sampling points is established to approximate the suspension kinematic/compliance model.
Technical Paper

Synthesis and Analysis of the Double-Axle Steering Mechanism Considering Dynamic Loads

2008-04-14
2008-01-1105
This paper investigates a hierarchical optimization procedure for the optimum synthesis of a double-axle steering mechanism by considering the dynamic load of a vehicle which is seldom discussed in the previous literature. Firstly, a multi-body model of double-axle steering is presented by characterizing the detailed leaf spring effect. Accordingly, the influences of dynamic load including the motion interference of steering linkage resulted from the elastic deformation of leaf spring, and the effects of wheel slip angle and the position discrepancy of wheel speed rotation centers are explored systematically. And then, a hierarchical optimization method based on target cascading methodology is proposed to classify the design variables of double-axle steering mechanism into four levels. At last, a double-axle steering mechanism of a heavy-duty truck is utilized to demonstrate the validity of this method.
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