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Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
Journal Article

A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

Abstract This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued.
Journal Article

A Centrally Managed Identity-Anonymized CAN Communication System*

Abstract Identity-Anonymized CAN (IA-CAN) protocol is a secure CAN protocol, which provides the sender authentication by inserting a secret sequence of anonymous IDs (A-IDs) shared among the communication nodes. To prevent malicious attacks from the IA-CAN protocol, a secure and robust system error recovery mechanism is required. This article presents a central management method of IA-CAN, named the IA-CAN with a global A-ID, where a gateway plays a central role in the session initiation and system error recovery. Each ECU self-diagnoses the system errors, and (if an error happens) it automatically resynchronizes its A-ID generation by acquiring the recovery information from the gateway. We prototype both a hardware version of an IA-CAN controller and a system for the IA-CAN with a global A-ID using the controller to verify our concept.
Journal Article

A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

Abstract One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Data Reduction Algorithm for Automotive Multiplexing

Abstract Present-day vehicles come with a variety of new features like the pre-crash warning, the vehicle-to-vehicle communication, semi-autonomous driving systems, telematics, drive by wire. They demand very high bandwidth from in-vehicle networks. Various ECUs present inside the automotive transmits useful information via automotive multiplexing. Transmission of data in real-time achieves optimum functionality. The high bandwidth and high-speed requirement can be achieved either by using multiple buses or by implementing higher bandwidth. But, by doing so, the cost of the network as well as the complexity of the wiring increases. Another option is to implement higher layer protocol which can reduce the amount of data transferred by using data reduction (DR) techniques, thus reducing the bandwidth usage. The implementation cost is minimal as the changes are required in the software only and not in hardware.
Journal Article

A Global Sensitivity Analysis Approach for Engine Friction Modeling

Abstract Mechanical friction simulations offer a valuable tool in the development of internal combustion engines for the evaluation of optimization studies in terms of time efficiency. However, system modeling and evaluation of model performance may be highly complex. A high number of interacting submodels and parameters as well as a limited model transparency contribute to uncertainties in the modeling process. In particular, model calibration and validation are complicated by the unknown effect of parameters on the model output. This article presents an advanced and model-independent methodology for identifying sensitive parameters of engine friction. This allows the user to investigate an unlimited number of parameters of a model whose structure and properties are prior unknown.
Journal Article

A Guide to Uncertainty Quantification for Experimental Engine Research and Heat Release Analysis

Abstract Performing an uncertainty analysis for complex measurement tasks, such as those found in engine research, presents unique challenges. Also, because of the excessive computational costs, modeling-based approaches, such as a Monte Carlo approach, may not be practical. This work provides a traditional statistical approach to uncertainty analysis that incorporates the uncertainty tree, which is a graphical tool for complex uncertainty analysis. Approaches to calculate the required sensitivities are discussed, including issues associated with numerical differentiation, numerical integration, and post-processing. Trimming of the uncertainty tree to remove insignificant contributions is discussed. The article concludes with a best practices guide in the Appendix to uncertainty propagation in experimental engine combustion post-processing, which includes suggested post-processing techniques and down-selected functional relationships for uncertainty propagation.
Journal Article

A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

Abstract Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics.
Journal Article

A Kinematic Modeling Framework for Prediction of Instantaneous Status of Towing Vehicle Systems

Abstract A kinematic modeling framework was established to predict status (position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and shape) of a towing vehicle system with different driver inputs. This framework consists of three components: (1) a state space model to decide position and velocity for the vehicle system based on Newton’s second law; (2) an angular acceleration transferring model, which leads to a hypothesis that the each towed unit follows the same path as the towing vehicle; and (3) a polygon model to draw instantaneous polygons to envelop the entire system at any time point.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
Journal Article

A Model Study for Prediction of Performance of Automotive Interior Coatings: Effect of Cross-Link Density and Film Thickness on Resistance to Solvents and Chemicals

Abstract Automotive interior coatings for flexible and rigid substrates represent an important segment within automotive coating space. These coatings are used to protect plastic substrates from mechanical and chemical damage, in addition to providing colour and design aesthetics. These coatings are expected to resist aggressive chemicals, fluids, and stains while maintaining their long-term physical appearance and mechanical integrity. Designing such coatings, therefore, poses significant challenges to the formulators in effectively balancing these properties. Among many factors affecting coating properties, the cross-link density (XLD) and solubility parameter (δ) of coatings are the most predominant factors.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Development of a High-Performance Intake Manifold for a Single-Cylinder Engine Used in Formula SAE Application

Abstract The Formula SAE (FSAE) is an international engineering competition where a Formula style race car is designed and built by students from worldwide universities. According to FSAE regulation, an air restrictor with circular cross section of 20 mm for gasoline-fuelled and 19 mm for E-85-fuelled vehicles is to be incorporated between the throttle valve and engine inlet. The sole purpose of this regulation is to limit the airflow to the engine used. The only sequence allowed is throttle valve, restrictor and engine inlet. A new approach of combining ram theory and acoustic theory methods are investigated to increase the performance of the engine by designing an optimized intake runner for a particular engine speed range and an optimized plenum volume in this range. Engine performance characteristics such as brake power, brake torque and volumetric efficiency are taken into considerations.
Journal Article

A Novel Metaheuristic for Adaptive Signal Timing Optimization Considering Emergency Vehicle Preemption and Tram Priority

Abstract In this article, a novel hybrid metaheuristic based on passing vehicle search (PVS) cultural algorithm (CA) is proposed. This contribution has a twofold aim: First is to present the new hybrid PVS-CA. Second is to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for adaptive signal timing optimization. For this, a system that can adapt efficiently to the real-time traffic situation based on priority signal control is developed. Hence, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) techniques have been used to adjust signal phasing in order to serve emergency vehicles (EVs) and manage the tram priority in a coordinated tram intersection. The system used in this study provides cyclic signal operation based on a real-time control approach, including an optimization process and a database to manage the sensor data from detectors for real-time predictions of EV and tram arrival time.
Journal Article

A Predictive Tool to Evaluate Braking System Performance Using Thermo-Structural Finite Element Model

Abstract The braking phenomenon is an aspect of vehicle stopping performance where with kinetic energy due to the speed of the vehicle is transformed into thermal energy produced by the brake disc and its pads. The heat must then be dissipated into the surrounding structure and into the airflow around the brake system. The thermal friction field during the braking phase between the disc and the brake pads can lead to excessive temperatures. In our work, we presented numerical modeling using ANSYS software adapted in the finite element method (FEM), to follow the evolution of the global temperatures for the two types of brake discs, full and ventilated disc during braking scenario. Also, numerical simulation of the transient thermal analysis and the static structural analysis were performed here sequentially, with coupled thermo-structural method.
Journal Article

A Probabilistic Approach to Hydroplaning Potential and Risk

Abstract A major contributor to fatal vehicle crashes is hydroplaning, which has traditionally been reported at a specific vehicle speed for a given operating condition. However, hydroplaning is a complex phenomenon requiring a holistic, probabilistic, and multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this article is to develop a probabilistic approach to predict Hydroplaning Potential and Risk that integrates fundamental understanding of the interdependent factors: hydrology, fluid-solid interactions, tire mechanics, and vehicle dynamics. A novel theoretical treatment of Hydroplaning Potential and Risk is developed, and simulation results for the prediction of water film thickness and Hydroplaning Potential are presented. The results show the advantages of the current approach which could enable the improvement of road, vehicle, and tire design, resulting in greater safety of the traveling public.
Journal Article

A Refined 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulence in SI Engines

Abstract In this work, the refinement of a phenomenological turbulence model developed in recent years by the authors is presented in detail. As known, reliable information about the underlying turbulence intensity is a mandatory prerequisite to predict the burning rate in phenomenological combustion models. The model is embedded under the form of “user routine” in the GT-Power™ software. The main advance of the proposed approach is the potential to describe the effects on the in-cylinder turbulence of some geometrical parameters, such as the intake runner orientation, the compression ratio, the bore-to-stroke ratio, and the valve number. The model is based on three balance equations, referring to the mean flow kinetic energy, the tumble vortex momentum, and the turbulent kinetic energy (3-eq. concept). An extended formulation is also proposed, which includes a fourth equation for the dissipation rate, allowing to forecast also the integral length scale (4-eq. concept).
Journal Article

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

Abstract This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%).
Journal Article

A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

Abstract Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
Journal Article

A Review on Physical Mechanisms of Tire-Pavement Interaction Noise

Abstract Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) dominates for passenger cars above 40 km/h and trucks above 70 km/h. Numerous studies have attempted to uncover and distinguish the basic mechanisms of TPIN. However, intense debate is still ongoing about the validity of these mechanisms. In this work, the physical mechanisms proposed in the literature were reviewed and divided into three categories: generation mechanisms, amplification mechanisms, and attenuation mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to gather the published general opinions for further open discussions.