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Journal Article

A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

Abstract This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued.
Journal Article

A Review of Sensor Technologies for Automotive Fuel Economy Benefits

Abstract This article is a review of automobile sensor technologies that have the potential to enhance fuel economy. Based on an in-depth review of the literature and demonstration projects, the following sensor technologies were selected for evaluation: vehicular radar systems (VRS), camera systems (CS), and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. V2V and V2I systems were found to have the highest merit in improving fuel economy over a wide range of integration strategies, with fuel economy improvements ranging from 5 to 20% with V2V and 10 to 25% for V2I. However, V2V and V2I systems require significant adoption for practical application which is not expected in this decade. Numerous academic studies and contemporary vehicular safety systems attest VRS as more technologically mature and robust relative to other sensors. However, VRS offers less fuel economy enhancement (~14%).
Journal Article

A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

Abstract Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
Journal Article

A Review on Physical Mechanisms of Tire-Pavement Interaction Noise

Abstract Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) dominates for passenger cars above 40 km/h and trucks above 70 km/h. Numerous studies have attempted to uncover and distinguish the basic mechanisms of TPIN. However, intense debate is still ongoing about the validity of these mechanisms. In this work, the physical mechanisms proposed in the literature were reviewed and divided into three categories: generation mechanisms, amplification mechanisms, and attenuation mechanisms. The purpose of this article is to gather the published general opinions for further open discussions.
Journal Article

Active Suspension: Future Lessons from The Past

Abstract Active suspension was a topic of great research interest near the end of last century. Ultimately broad bandwidth active systems were found to be too expensive in terms of both energy and financial cost. This past work, developing the ultimate vehicle suspension, has relevance for today’s vehicle designers working on more efficient and effective suspension systems for practical vehicles. From a control theorist’s perspective, it provides an interesting case study in the use of “practical” knowledge to allow “better” performance than predicted by theoretically optimal linear controllers. A brief history of active suspension will be introduced. Peter Wright, David Williams, and others at Lotus developed their Lotus modal control concept. In a parallel effort, Dean Karnopp presented the notion of inertial (Skyhook) damping. These concepts will be compared, the combination of these two distinctly different efforts will be discussed, and eventual vehicle results presented.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Systems and Their Insertion in the Brazilian Scenario: A Test Track Proposal

Abstract The conception of Automated Driving Systems is expanding fast with the expectation of the whole society and with heavy investments toward research and development. However, the insertion of these vehicles in real scenarios worldwide is still a challenge for governments, once they require an important evolution of the legal and regulatory framework. Although there are several initiatives to accelerate the insertion process, each country has specificities when considering the traffic scenario. In order to contribute to this emerging problem, this article presents a perspective of how the insertion of these vehicles can be performed considering specificities of the Brazilian scenario, one of the world's biggest car markets. Thus, it is discussed the global scenario of autonomous vehicles, the Brazilian traffic system, and the certification and homologation process, focusing on a new test track proposal.
Journal Article

Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

Abstract Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
Journal Article

Cyberattacks and Countermeasures for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles

Abstract ICVs are expected to make the transportation safer, cleaner, and more comfortable in the near future. However, the trend of connectivity has greatly increased the attack surfaces of vehicles, which makes in-vehicle networks more vulnerable to cyberattacks which then causes serious security and safety issues. In this article, we therefore systematically analyzed cyberattacks and corresponding countermeasures for in-vehicle networks of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICVs). Firstly, we analyzed the security risk of ICVs and proposed an in-vehicle network model from a hierarchical point of view. Then, we discussed possible cyberattacks at each layer of proposed network model.
Journal Article

Filled Rubber Isolator’s Constitutive Model and Application to Vehicle Multi-Body System Simulation: A Literature Review

Abstract Rubber elements present highly nonlinear mechanical properties affected by frequency and amplitude of excitation, prestrain and temperature, etc. Finite element (FE) models and lumped parameter models can be distinguished in the development of constitutive models of rubbers. Based on the concept of overlay model, different kinds of viscoelastic, or frequency-dependent models, and elastoplastic/friction, or amplitude-dependent models, are compared in terms of their modelling approach, parameters identification process and applications. Prestrain-dependent models and temperature-dependent thermo-mechanical models are also reviewed, including some special models which are not based on the concept of the overlay model. Experimental and computational studies of cylindrical bushings subjected to coupled deformation modes are analyzed and discussed.
Journal Article

Recent Development in Friction Stir Welding Process: A Review

Abstract The Friction stir welding (FSW) is recently presented so to join different materials without the melting process as a solid-state joining technique. A widely application for the FSW process is recently developed in automotive industries. To create the welded components by using the FSW, the plunged probe and shoulder as welding tools are used. The Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used so to simulate and analyze material flow during the FSW process. As a result, thermal and mechanical stresses on the workpiece and welding tool can be analyzed and decreased. Effects of the welding process parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, tool tilt angle, depth of the welding tool, and tool shoulder diameter can be analyzed and optimized so to increase the efficiency of the production process. Material characteristics of welded parts such as hardness or grain size can be analyzed so to increase the quality of part production.