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Technical Paper

A Shock Absorber Model Using CFD Analysis and Easy5

A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, combined with a dynamic modeling technique is introduced to study the flow and performance of automotive hydraulic dampers / shock absorbers. The flow characteristics of components obtained by CFD are lied to a dynamic modeling package to predict the damping force. The component CFD analysis showed unique features of flow pattern, discharge coefficients, and pressure distribution for various shock absorber components. A dynamic damper model is constructed by integrating the hydraulic system with component flow information provided by CFD. The modeling results agree with test data well. It is shown that automotive shock absorber performance can be simulated accurately without physical testing.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Vehicle Thermal Protection Development

Vehicle thermal protection is an important aspect of the overall vehicle development process. It involves optimizing the exhaust system routing and designing heat shields to protect various components that are in near proximity to the exhaust system. Reduced time to market necessitates an efficient process for thermal protection development. A robust procedure that utilizes state of the art CFD simulation techniques proactively during the design phase is described. Simulation allows for early detection of thermal issues and development of countermeasures several months before prototype vehicles are built. Physical testing is only used to verify the thermal protection package rather than to develop heat shields. The new procedure reduces the number of physical tests and results in a robust, efficient methodology.
Technical Paper

Attempts for Reduction of Rear Window Buffeting Using CFD

This paper summarizes the major activities of CFD study on rear window buffeting of production vehicles during the past two years at DaimlerChrysler. The focus of the paper is the attempt to find suitable solutions for buffeting suppression using a developed procedure of CFD simulation with commercial software plus FFT acoustic post-processing. The analysis procedure has been validated using three representative production vehicles and good correlation with wind tunnel tests has been attained which has gained the confidence in solving the buffeting problem. Several attempts have been proposed and tried to find solution for buffeting reduction. Some of them are promising, but feasibility and manufacturability still need discussion. In order to find suitable solution for buffeting reduction, more basic research is necessary, more ideas should be collected, and more joint efforts of CFD and testing are imperative.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of Thermal Fluid Flow and Conversion Characteristics of the Catalytic Converter

Fluid flow, temperature prediction, thermal response and light-off behavior of the catalytic converter were investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), combined with a conjugate heat transfer and a chemical reaction model. There are two objectives in this study: one to predict the maximum operation temperature for appropriate materials selection; and the other, to develop a numerical model which can be adjusted to reflect changes in the catalyst/washcoat formulation to accurately predict effects on the flow, temperature and light-off behavior. Temperature distributions were calculated for exhaust gas, catalyzed substrate, mounting mat and converter skin. Converter shell skin temperature was obtained for different mat materials. By changing reactant mass concentrations and noble metal loading, the converter light-off behavior, thermal response and temperature distributions were changed.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of the Flows Within Disengaged Wet Clutches of an Automatic Transmission

The flow within the disengaged wet clutch packs of an automatic transmission has been simulated as a three-dimensional, steady-state, two-phase flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. The flow within a clutch with ungrooved friction plates was first solved for validating the CFD model, followed by a simulation of the flow within a clutch with grooved friction plates. A group of dimensionless variables have been established for mathematically modeling the drag torque and power loss in clutch packs. The effects of rotating speed of friction plate, pack clearance, and flow rate on drag torque and power loss have been studied.
Technical Paper

Design through Collaboration: A Supplier Partnership Paradigm

New supplier / manufacturer relationship are necessary to produce products quickly, cost-effectively, and with features expected by the customer. However, the need for a new relationship is not universally accepted and endorsed. Resistance can be minimized through supplier self-assessment (such as Ford Motor Company's web-based instruments), management initiatives, and incentives. Trust and sharing are hallmarks. This strategy requires a new workplace paradigm affecting culture and people issues. Teams, extend across companies, share ideas and innovations. Decisions need to be mutually beneficial and the long-term value, for supplier and manufacturer, needs to be considered.
Technical Paper

Detailed Modeling of Liquid Fuel Sprays in One-Dimensional Gas Flow Simulation

In internal combustion engines, liquid fuel injection is one of the most prevalent means of fuel delivery and air-fuel mixture preparation. The behavior of the fuel spray and wall film is a key factor in determining air-fuel mixing and hence combustion and emissions. A comprehensive model for the liquid fuel spray has been developed in conjunction with the one-dimensional gas flow code WAVE. The model includes droplet dynamics and evaporation, spray-wall impingement, wall film dynamics and evaporation. The fuel injector can be placed in the manifold, inlet port or cylinder. Liquid fuel droplets are injected with a prescribed size distribution, and their subsequent movement and vaporization are modeled via the discrete particle approach, frequently used in multi-dimensional CFD codes. This approach ensures conservation of mass, momentum and energy between the gas and liquid phases.
Technical Paper

Durability, Acoustic Performance and Process Efficiencies of Absorbent Fibers for Muffler Filling

Silencers are very often filled with absorbent fibers to optimize the acoustic performance, particularly when the volume is limited. The fibers have to meet several specifications concerning (1) acoustic damping as a function of frequency, (2) temperature stability, (3) processing, and (4) blow-out resistance. This paper will review the characteristic properties for continuous fibers including Advantex™ versus standard E Glass as well as discontinuous fibers such as basalt wool. The failure mechanism of the various fibers will be explored in detail. Thermal shock testing, single filament tensile strengths, and weight loss measurements will be used to contrast the failure mechanism of these fibers. Additionally, the acoustic performance of silencers filled with different fibers will be analyzed and compared. The selection of different filling materials is closely linked to the production process utilized.
Technical Paper

Experimental & Computational Simulations Utilized During the Aerodynamic Development of the Dodge Intrepid R/T Race Car

Experimental and computational simulation techniques were concurrently employed throughout the aerodynamic development of the NASCAR Dodge Intrepid R/T in order to achieve a greater understanding of the complex flow fields involved. With less than 500 days to design, understand, and build a competitive vehicle, the development team utilized a closed loop approach to testing. Scale wind tunnel models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to identify program direction and to speed the development cycle versus the traditional process of full scale testing. This paper will detail the process and application of both the experimental and computational techniques used in the aerodynamic development of the Intrepid R/T race vehicle, primarily focusing on the earlier stages that led to its competition introduction at the start of the 2001 season.
Technical Paper

Flow Uniformity Optimization for Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

In 2007 emissions regulations for on-road light to heavy duty Diesel trucks will require the use of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The uniform distribution of soot on the DPF is critical for adequate long term performance of these DPFs. This is especially true when cordierite is used instead of silicon carbide for the DPF substrate, due to the reduced thermal conductivity and reduced peak temperature capability of cordierite. In addition to flow uniformity, an inverted flow pattern where more of the flow is forced radially outward on the substrate face could be beneficial to counteract thermal losses in the converter. This paper describes a dispersion device that can improve flow geometry with a low backpressure penalty. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and experimental data are presented for this device. Additionally, cone design options are explored, and CFD analysis results of the cone design are presented.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Enhancement through Impingement of Flows and its Application in Lock-up Clutches

An impinging-flow based methodology of enhancing the heat transfer in the grooves of a lockup clutch is proposed and studied. In order to evaluate its efficacy and reveal the mechanism, the three-dimensional flow within the groove was solved as a conjugate heat transfer problem in a rotating reference frame using the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The turbulence characteristics were predicted using k-ε model. The comparison of cooling effect was made between a simple baseline groove pattern and a typical flow-impingement based groove pattern of the same groove-to-total area ratio in terms of heat rejection ratio, maximum surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficient. It is found that more heat can be rejected with the impinging-flow based groove from the friction surface than with the baseline while the maximum surface temperature is lower in the former case.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Shoebox Converter Design for Thinwall Ceramic Substrates

Shoebox catalytic converter design to securely mount thinwall substrates with uniform mounting mat Gap Bulk Density (GBD) around the substrate is developed and validated. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis, using heat transfer predictions with and without chemical reaction, allows to carefully select the mounting mat material for the targeted shell skin temperature. CFD analysis enables to design the converter inlet and outlet cones to obtain uniform exhaust gas flow to achieve maximum converter performance and reduce mat erosion. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to design and optimize manufacturing tool geometry and control process. FEA gives insight to simulate the canning process using displacement control to identify and optimize the closing speed and load to achieve uniform mat Gap Bulk Density between the shell and the substrate.
Technical Paper

Side Window Buffeting Characteristics of an SUV

Buffeting is a wind noise of high intensity and low frequency in a moving vehicle when a window or sunroof is open and this noise makes people in the passenger compartment very uncomfortable. In this paper, side window buffeting was simulated for a typical SUV using the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.0. Buffeting frequency and intensity were predicted in the simulations and compared with the corresponding experimental wind tunnel measurement. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters on buffeting frequency and intensity were also studied. These parameters include vehicle speed, yaw angle, sensor location and volume of the passenger compartment. Various configurations of side window opening were considered. The effects of mesh size and air compressibility on buffeting were also evaluated. The simulation results for some baseline configurations match the corresponding experimental data fairly well.
Technical Paper

Stamping Effect on Oil Canning and Dent Resistance Performances of an Automotive Roof Panel

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of stamping process on oil canning and dent resistance performances of an automotive roof panel. Finite element analysis of stamping processes was carried out using LS-Dyna to obtain thickness and plastic strain distributions under various forming conditions. The forming results were mapped onto the roof model by an in-house developed mapping code. A displacement control approach using an implicit FEM code ABAQUS/Standard was employed for oil canning and denting analysis. An Auto/Steel Partnership Standardized Test Procedure for Dent Resistance was employed to establish the analysis model and to determine the dent and oil canning loads. The results indicate that stamping has a positive effect on dent resistance and a negative effect on oil canning performance. As forming strains increase, dent resistance increases while the oil canning load decreases.
Technical Paper

The DaimlerChrysler Full-Scale Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

This paper provides an overview of the design and commissioning results for the DaimlerChrysler full-scale vehicle Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) brought online in 2002. This wind tunnel represents the culmination of the plan for aeroacoustic facilities at the DaimlerChrysler Corporation Technical Center (DCTC) in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The competing requirements of excellent flow quality, low background noise, and constructed cost within budget were optimized using Computational Fluid Dynamics, extensive acoustic modeling, and a variety of scale-model experimental results, including dedicated experiments carried out in the 3/8-scale pilot wind tunnel located at DCTC. The paper describes the project history, user requirements, and design philosophy employed in realizing the facility. The AAWT meets all of DaimlerChrylser's performance targets, and was delivered on schedule. The commissioning results presented in this paper show its performance to be among the best in the world.