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Journal Article

Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Journal Article

Lab-Based Testing of ADAS Applications for Commercial Vehicles

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing electronic control unit (ECU) networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to reliably validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extremely diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras, and maps are stimulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
Technical Paper

Modular Multibody Approach for Real-Time Simulation of Vehicle-Trailer Combinations

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation in the development and test process of vehicle dynamics controllers requires a real-time tractor-trailer simulation model. The hitch coupling must be numerically stable to ensure real-time simulation for various driving maneuvers, particularly at the vehicle's handling limits. This paper presents a robust implementation of tractor-trailer coupling. The equation of motion is formed using a novel formulation which is a combination of Jourdain's Principle and the Articulated Body Algorithm. The paper shows that a robust model for a real-time tractor-trailer simulation can be achieved with the proposed method. Moreover, the approach presented is suitable for modular modeling, is successfully implemented and can also be used as a basis for flexible system definition with an adjustable number of trailer axles.