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Technical Paper

Calibrating BEV and HEV Powertrains for Dynamic Performance Targets

Calibrating a vehicle’s powertrain for dynamic operation needs to focus on efforts to mitigate the risks of thermal overload which may arise in the stator or rotor components of an e-motor. Risks also may arise for expected NVH or durability targets, with torque and torque “oscillations” acting as primary sources for the vehicles’ NVH behavior. Both topics, temperature measurement of stator and rotor as well as dynamic torque measurements of the powertrain’s drive shaft are addressed with examples demonstrating the sensors applications in normal test bed and vehicle configurations.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Aniline Octane Booster on Lubricating Oil

This paper describes the observed impact of aniline octane booster and more specifically N-Methyl Aniline (NMA) on lubricating oil, following field issues encountered in vehicles in certain areas of the world where aniline based octane booster was assumed to be used. The observed field issue was heavy sludge formation, leading to engine malfunctions. The impact of NMA on lubricating oil could first be replicated using a modified version of the CEC L-109 oxidation bench test, with oil diluted with fuel and NMA at start of test. Significant kinematic viscosity (KV100) increase at the end of test was evidenced, especially as NMA content was increased in the oil. Total base number (TBN) evaluated at end of test also showed values above fresh oil (at or above 4.5 wt% NMA) that was consistent with observations from the field. The assessment of NMA impact was then scaled up using ACEA black sludge engine test.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Direct Natural-Gas Injection and Mixture Formation in a Stratified-Charge SI Engine with Centrally Mounted Injector

Direct injection (DI) of natural gas (NG) at high pressure conditions has emerged as a high-potential strategy for improving SI engine performance. Besides, DI allows an increase in the fuel economy, due to the possibility of a significant engine dethrottling at partial load. The high-pressure gas injection can also increase the turbulence level of mixture and thus the overall fuel-air mixing. Since direct NG injection is an emerging technology, there is a lack of experience on the optimum configuration of the injection system and the associated combustion chamber design. In the last few years, some numerical investigations of gas injection have been made, mainly oriented at the development of reliable numerical investigation tools. The present paper is concerned with the development and application of a numerical Star-CD based model for the investigation of the direct NG injection process from a poppet-valve injector into a bowl-piston engine combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

Study of Interaction of N-Methyl Aniline Octane Booster on Lubricating Oil

The impact of N-Methyl Aniline (NMA) octane booster on lubricating oil has previously been studied and the main findings were reported in SAE paper 2016-01-2273. Increased sludge formation had been observed in modified ACEA black sludge testing when NMA was added to the fuel but there was very limited viscosity increase, which did not corroborate the trend evidenced on modified CEC L-109 oxidation testing where significant viscosity increase was noted when NMA was added to the oil and fuel mixture. Accordingly, modified black sludge tests have been run with and without NMA added to the oil sump at the beginning of the test to better match modified L-109 oxidation bench test conditions. Results showed the same trend in terms of viscosity increase between the modified L-109 oxidation bench test and black sludge test.