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Technical Paper

Advances in Desktop Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation allows ECUs to be tested in a simulated environment in closed loop. Engines, vehicles, and other components the ECU normally controls are replaced by high-fidelity models executed on a real-time computer system. This paper shows that today's hardware/software technology makes comprehensive and powerful low-cost desktop simulators feasible. It is also shown that it is now possible to use the same tools for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation that have been used in the control development.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation of Production Quality Code for ECUs

This paper describes a new production code generator that meets both the requirements of code developers for efficient and reliable production code, as well as the desire of system engineers to establish a control design process based on simulation models that double as executable specifications for the ECU software. The production code generator supports automatic scaling, generates optimized fixed-point C code for microcontrollers like the Motorola 683xx, Siemens C16x, and Hitachi SH-2, and produces ASAP2 [1] calibration information. Benchmark results show that the autogenerated code can match or even exceed the efficiency of typical handwritten production code. Code quality is assured by design and by systematic, automatic, and extremely comprehensive test procedures.
Technical Paper

DSP-Based Automotive Sensor Signal Generation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation is a technology where the actual vehicles, engines or other components are replaced by a real-time simulation in a simulation computer, based on a mathematical model. That simulation reads ECU (Electronic Control Unit) output signals which would normally go to actuators. On the other hand the simulation must output the sensor signals which make the ECU ‘think’ it controls a real system. Generating these signals can be very difficult. Signals may be complex, depend on on-line computed variables, and be required to be output at high timing resolution. This paper describes the problems and presents a solution which employs high-performance Digital Signal Processors (DSP) to generate such signals on-line by Direct-Digital-Synthesis (DDS).
Technical Paper

Development Speed-Up for Electronic Control Systems

The development of electronic control systems has become a critical issue in the automotive industry. Rapid control prototyping (RCP) and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HIL) are important technologies for speeding up the development process. They have already established themselves as viable technologies, albeit not everywhere yet. One big gap in the development process, however, is the transfer from RCP to a target ECU with all its limitations, and upcoming tools are expected to bridge that gap. With major obstacles being removed by the tool-based development process, the focus is shifting to streamlining the process and making it seamless, from requirements analysis right through to the finished production ECU.