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Technical Paper

0D-1D Coupling for an Integrated Fuel Economy Control Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Bus

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
Technical Paper

1000 kW Sodium-Sulfur Battery Pilot Plant: Its Operation Experience at Tatsumi Test Facility

Since 1978, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) of MITI has promoted research and development of “Large-Scale Energy Conservation Technology” popularly known as the “Moonlight Project”. As the first step, “system technology tests” using improved lead acid batteries started at Kansai Electric's Tatsumi Electric Energy Storage System Test Plant on October 1, 1986. The results showed that this system can work not only as a load-leveling apparatus but also as a high-quality power source which can support the utility power system with its load frequency control and voltage regulation capabilities. As the second step of these R&D activities, a 1MW/8MWh sodium-sulfur battery pilot plant was constructed at the same Tatsumi site. On July 11, 1991, 1000 kW× 8H facility, the largest of its type in the world, was completed and started operation. This paper describes the construction experience and operation results of the pilot plant.
Technical Paper

12-Volt Vacuum Fluorescent Display Drive Circuitry for Electronically Tuned Radios

The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Technical Paper

12V/14V to 36V/42V Automotive System Supply Voltage Change and the New Technologies

This paper shows some aspects of the automotive voltage energy system level shift from 14 to 42 Volts. New features and prospective emissions/fuel economy requirements are creating electrical power needs in future automobiles, which today's conventional system cannot adequately supply at 14 Vdc (nominal, with a 12 Volt battery). It will be necessary to provide electric motors, DC/DC converters, inverters, battery management, and other electronic controls to meet higher voltage requirements. Suppliers must now include 42 Volt components and systems within their product range and make these new components as light, small, and cost efficient as possible. This paper is a compilation of several published works aiming to offer a synthesis to introduce this subject to the Brazilian Automotive Market.
Technical Paper

14/42V - Electrical Power Supply Systems Consequences for Electrical Interconnections and Switches

This paper provides an overview about the consequences of a 14/42 V - Electrical Power Supply System for the Electrical Interconnection and Switching Technology. It presents design guidelines and solutions for connector systems including advanced applications like fuse and relay boxes and gives an overview of those existing connectors already suited for 42 V and even higher voltages. The problem of arcing due to the increased voltage is discussed for the case that mating and unmating under load has to be taken into consideration. Arcing also has a tremendous impact on the design of 42 V proof relays. Therefore, some basic results be presented along with proposals how these problems can be overcome by appropriate designs. Another part of the paper looks at the electrical power supply system itself. Here interconnection techniques for new battery systems are discussed. Finally, the chances for new technologies are highlighted.
Technical Paper

1553 RT Mechanizations for Data Sample Consistency and Multi-Message Transfers

System requirements and Interface Control Drawings (ICDs) make a variety of demands for MIL-STD-1553 remote terminals (RTs). Among these requirements are the need to ensure data integrity and sample data consistency, the need to perform bulk (multi-message) data transfers, and the need to offload the operation of the host CPU to the greatest degree possible. This latter requirement is reflected in such specifications as CPU spare bandwidth. The latest 1553 terminals provide a variety of choices for performing the different types of transfers. This paper provides a discussion of the hardware and software techniques for achieving these objectives. Three different schemes for RT subaddress memory management are presented: single message, circular buffer, and double buffered. For receive and transmit messages, these include fully synchronous single message transfers, asynchronous single message transfers, and multi-message transfers.
Technical Paper

16-Channel Portable Data Acquisition and Reduction System

A Microprocessor Data Acquisition System has been designed to be cab-mounted in vehicles or used in laboratories to acquire up to 16 channels of test data. This data may be acquired as time-at-level histograms in one or two dimensions with min-max-mean data recovery, time histories, or peaks and valleys stored on digital tape. The system includes a microcomputer-based Playback/Support Box that simplifies playback of data tapes for computer analysis or stand-alone data plotting using a graphics terminal.
Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper

2000 University of Maryland FutureTruck Design Description

The University of Maryland team converted a model year 2000 Chevrolet Suburban to an ethanol-fueled hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) and tied for first place overall in the 2000 FutureTruck competition. Competition goals include a two-thirds reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a reduction of exhaust emissions to meet California ultra-low emissions vehicle (ULEV) Tier II standards, and an increase in fuel economy. These goals must be met without compromising the performance, amenities, safety, or ease of manufacture of the stock Suburban. The University of Maryland FutureTruck, Proteus, addresses the competition goals with a powertrain consisting of a General Motors 3.8-L V6 engine, a 75-kW (100 hp) SatCon electric motor, and a 336-V battery pack. Additionally, Proteus incorporates several emissions-reducing and energy-saving modifications; an advanced control strategy that is implemented through use of an on-board computer and an innovative hybrid-electric drive train.
Technical Paper

200–300 HP Gas Turbine Engine Family for the U. S. Army

This paper describes a series of 200–300 hp gas turbine engines being developed by the AiResearch-Phoenix Division of the Garrett Corp. for the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratories. These engines, which include both simple cycle and regenerative types, are intended for ground power applications, primarily for direct driving high speed equipment such as high frequency alternators. Descriptions are given of the basic approach taken to meet the Army’s requirements, the resulting engine configurations, the development progress to date, and future program plans and timing.
Technical Paper

240 VDC Electric Vehicle System

THE BATTERY is the primary component limiting electric vehicle performance that equals today's standard of expectations as defined by the I. C. engine powered vehicles. Efforts to optimize the electric vehicle performance is leading many people to select and assemble the highest efficiency components available. High voltage electric vehicle power system can provide performance advantages over lower voltage systems, but only if this voltage is in balance with the total system. Mixing high efficiency components does not Insure total system efficiency optimization. The ability of a battery to release its stored energy is a function of its demand. Higher current demands will reduce the efficiency of a battery. This paper reveals how such a mismatch occurred and its reflection on what appeared to be a battery problem.
Technical Paper

25-Ah Li Ion Cell for the Mars 2001 Lander

BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation (BATC) as part of its participation in the USAF/NASA Li Ion Battery Development Consortium has developed a candidate 25-Ah cell for the Mars 2001 Lander. Although the capacity and cycle life requirements for this application are relatively modest, the low temperature performance (−20°C) and pulse discharge requirements (60A) are somewhat more challenging. Geometric requirements within the spacecraft also constrain the cell design leading to a cell with an aspect ratio quite different from those 25-Ah Li ion cells previously developed by BATC. The design of this cell and its compliance with the performance requirements of the mission will be discussed.
Journal Article

26,500km Down the Pan-American Highway in an Electric Vehicle A Battery's Perspective

This paper presents a novel battery degradation model based on empirical data from the Racing Green Endurance project. Using the rainflow-counting algorithm, battery charge and discharge data from an electric vehicle has been studied in order to establish more reliable and more accurate predictions for capacity and power fade of automotive traction batteries than those currently available. It is shown that for the particular lithium-iron phosphate (LiFePO₄) batteries, capacity fade is 5.8% after 87 cycles. After 3,000 cycles it is estimated to be 32%. Both capacity and power fade strongly depend on cumulative energy throughput, maximum C-rate as well as temperature.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
Technical Paper

28VDC Brushless Starter Generator Technology

Innovative Power Solutions (IPS), LLC has developed a 300A and a 500A 28 VDC Brushless Wound Rotor Starter/Generator (S/G) system. These systems are capable of replacing brush type S/G or Air Turbine Starters by presenting an adequate Torque vs. Speed performance. The S/G system developed by IPS consists of the Starter/Generator (Motor/Generator) and S/G Control Unit (SGCU).
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

3.2 KWH Battery Pack Using 18 Army Standard Lithium ion Rechargeable Batteries

A very high power source solution was developed for the Non Line of Sight Launch System Container Launch Unit (NLOS-LS CLU). The power source solution has been shown to be capable of providing the required 72 continuous hours of operation and high power (3560 watts) to sustain launch capability. The power source consists of 18 BB-2590/U batteries connected in parallel in three layers. Several CLU battery systems have been delivered to the PEO and have been well accepted. The Army is using standard rechargeable batteries, is currently being upgraded with SMBus capability and higher capacity lithium-ion cells. For this reason, the CLU power source has been manufactured with SMBus capability. This paper will discuss the performance of one layer of the CLU power source to simulate the whole power load.
Technical Paper

3M Approach to Implementing Life Cycle Management

3M is committed to continuously improving products and their manufacture toward the goal of sustainability. The 3M Life Cycle Management (LCM) program has been established to implement this goal. It utilizes a matrix tool to facilitate the review. The matrix consists of LCM Stage (Material Acquisition, R&D Operations, Manufacturing Operations, and Customer Use/Disposal) and Impact (Environment, Health, Safety, and Energy/Resources). The program is coordinated at the staff level by the Corporate Product Responsibility group. The corporate goal is to apply LCM to all new and existing products. The LCM program started with evaluations of new products within business units. Since 3M produces more than 60,000 products manufactured from more than 10,000 different raw materials, the routine evaluation of individual products challenges available staff and business unit resources. A technology-based approach for doing LCMs has been implemented to meet the challenge.
Technical Paper

3beLiEVe: Towards Delivering the Next Generation of LMNO Li-Ion Battery Cells and Packs Fit for Electric Vehicle Applications of 2025 and Beyond

This paper aims at providing the scientific community with an overview of the H2020 European project 3beLiEVe and of its early achievements. The project has the objective of delivering the next generation Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Oxide (LNMO) battery cells, in line with the target performance of the “generation 3b” Li-ion battery technology, as per EU SET-plan Action 7. Its activities are organized in three main pillars: (i) developing the 3b next generation LMNO battery cell, equipped with (ii) an array of internal and external sensors and complemented by (iii) manufacturing and recycling processes at scale. At present, 3beLiEVe is approaching the completion of its first project year (out of a total project planned duration of 42 months). Hence this paper, beyond presenting the overall project’s structure and objectives, focuses on its earliest results in the fields of the cell material formulation, arrangement of sensors and design of the battery pack.