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Technical Paper

"Electro Gyro-Cator" New Inertial Navigation System for Use in Automobiles

1983-02-01
830659
The Electro Gyro-Cator allows a driver to monitor his progress, plot and follow courses to a destination, select alternate routes, and drive more safely on unfamiliar roads or at night. Employing a sealed helium gas-rate gyro, the Electro Gyro-Cator offers visual display (CRT display) of a car's present location, direction and route, with overlay maps for fast, simple route selection and monitoring. The primary elements of the unit include trip and direction sensors, a 16-Bit central processing unit, a CRT display screen and a collection of transparent overlay maps fitted to the screen.
Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

12-Volt Vacuum Fluorescent Display Drive Circuitry for Electronically Tuned Radios

1986-03-01
860126
The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
Technical Paper

135 Days in Isolation and Confinement: The Hubes Simulation

1995-07-01
951512
The EUROMIR-95 flight was selected as model for the HUBES experiment: a similar duration (135 days), a similar crew (3 men), similar schedule organisation (8 hours work, 8 hours sleep, 8 hours off-duties), similar workload for the crew and the mission control (performance of scientific experiments), similar setup for communication and data processing, and similar layout of the MIR station, as the simulation was performed in the MIR simulator located at the Institute for BioMedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow. The Scientific Programme of HUBES had been elaborated by integration of 31 experiments from more than 80 research proposals from Principal Investigators from Europe, USA and Russia, in domains of Physiology, Psychology, Operations and Technology.
Technical Paper

145 - 210 Horsepower Agricultural Tractor Noise Reduction Program

1993-09-01
932434
This paper summarizes the techniques and guidelines which were used to reduce the driver perceived noise level of a 145-210 HP series of agricultural tractors. Graphs of case study test results and comments on subjective noise quality are provided to guide the acoustic novice through the complexities of the vehicle sound environment in a methodical problem solving format.
Technical Paper

180MPa Piezo Common Rail System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0274
The challenge for the diesel engines today is to reduce harmful emissions, such as particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and enhance the fuel efficiency and power, which are its main advantages. To meet this challenge, DENSO has developed an advanced common rail system (CRS) that uses piezo actuated fuel injectors capable of delivering up to five injection events per combustion cycle at 180MPa, currently the world's highest commercially available diesel fuel injection pressure. The DENSO piezo injector incorporates an internally developed piezoelectric element that energizes quicker than its solenoid counterpart, thereby reducing the transition time for the start and end of the fuel injection event. The piezoelectric element and unique passage structure of the DENSO injector combine to provide a highly reliable and responsive fuel injection event.
Technical Paper

1953 Paper Jet Operations in Retrospect with Connotations for the Supersonic Transport

1965-02-01
650231
A first attempt to study civil aircraft operations comprehensively, prior to having the airplane, occurred before the initial operation of U.S. subsonic jets. One airline carried out a manual-simulated “paper jet” operation lasting fifteen months. Today, computerized simulation of machines, methods, and operations has become commonplace, and replaces the slide rule and tedious day-by-day inputs of aircraft operational criteria. Computerized simulations are also applied to every aspect of the SST design and operations. These are important, but the results being should be used with caution and judgement.
Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580048
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

1967 Guide to Governmental Assurance Documentation: In the Areas of Quality, Reliability, Maintainability, Value Engineering, Safety, Human Factors, and Zero Defects

1967-02-01
670642
Governmental assurance documentation bibliography updated; new tabulation effective as of April 1, 1967. Latest revision indicated in all instances, but no attempt was made to list supplements or amendments. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) published annually in three parts (alphabetic, numerical, and listing of Federal Supply Classification following unclassified documents.
Technical Paper

1974 Accident Experience with Air Cushion Restraint Systems

1975-02-01
750189
An air cushion restraint system has been available to the public on certain model passenger cars since January 1974. In response to this opportunity to obtain field experience, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has established a nationwide reporting network and investigative capability for accidents involving air-bag equipped cars. The reporting criteria for accidents require that the car be towed as a result of the accident, or that a front-seat occupant was injured, or that bag deployment occurred. The principal objective is to obtain the injury-reducing effectiveness of this restraint system in the total accident environment. This environment encompasses “towaway” accidents resulting in bag deployment and non-deployment. Definitive results are expected at the conclusion of the study. This paper summarizes the experience during the first year of the program, during which time the rate of accident occurrence was far less than originally expected.
Technical Paper

1987 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe Programmed Ride Control (PRC) Suspension

1987-02-01
870540
This paper describes Programmed Ride Control (PRC), the automatic adjustable shock absorber system designed and patented by Ford Motor Company. The system utilizes low shock absorber damping under normal driving conditions to provide soft boulevard ride, automatically switching to firm damping when required for improved handling. The system's microprocessor control module “learns” where the straight ahead steering wheel position is, allowing the system to respond to absolute steering wheel angle. A closed loop control strategy is used to improve system reliability and to notify the driver in the event of a system malfunction. Fast acting rotary solenoids control the damping rate of the shock absorbers.
Technical Paper

1991 Model Year Chrysler Mini-Van All Wheel Drive Vehicle

1990-09-01
901762
This paper presents the Chrysler 1991 Model Mini-Van All-Wheel-Drive (AWD) System. The AWD system is an enhanced traction system requiring no driver input or additional driving skills. It is transparent to the driver in that there is no perceived operating and/or handling difference relative to a front wheel driven vehicle. The system is aimed at safety and security in driving under all conditions. The paper further describes the design and development of the AWD vehicle system.
Technical Paper

1998/1999 AIAA Foundation Graduate Team Aircraft Design Competition: Super STOL Carrier On-board Delivery Aircraft

2000-10-10
2000-01-5535
The Cardinal is a Super Short Takeoff and Landing (SSTOL) aircraft, which is designed to fulfill the desire for center-city to center-city travel by utilizing river “barges” for short takeoffs and landings to avoid construction of new runways or heliports. In addition, the Cardinal will fulfill the needs of the U.S. Navy for a Carrier On-board Delivery (COD) aircraft to replace the C-2 Greyhound. Design requirements for the Cardinal included a takeoff ground roll of 300 ft, a landing ground roll of 400 ft, cruise at 350 knots with a range of up to 1500 nm with reserves, payload of 24 passengers and baggage for a commercial version or a military version with a 10,000 lb payload, capable of carrying two GE F110 engines for the F-14D, and a spot factor requirement of 60 feet by 29 feet.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Diesel Engine for Light Aircraft: IDI vs. DI Combustion Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2147
The paper presents a numerical study aimed at converting a commercial lightweight 2-Stroke Indirect Injection (IDI) Diesel aircraft engine to Direct Injection(DI). First, a CFD-1D model of the IDI engine was built and calibrated against experiments at the dynamometer bench. This model is the baseline for the comparison between the IDI and the DI combustion systems. The DI chamber design was supported by extensive 3D-CFD simulations, using a customized version of the KIVA-3V code. Once a satisfactory combustion system was identified, its heat release and wall transfer patterns were entered in the CFD-1D model, and a comparison between the IDI and the DI engine was performed, considering the same Air-Fuel Ratio limit. It was found that the DI combustion system yields several advantages: better take-off performance (higher power output), lower fuel consumption at cruise conditions, improved altitude performance, reduced cooling requirements.
Journal Article

2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines for Light Aircraft

2011-09-11
2011-24-0089
The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.
Technical Paper

2-Way Driven Compressor for Hybrid Vehicle Climate Control System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0911
The environment is one of the most important issues currently facing the world and the automobile industry is required to respond with eco-cars. To meet this requirement, the hybrid vehicle is one of the most optimal solutions. The hybrid system automatically stops engine idling (idling stop), or stops the engine during deceleration to recover energy. The engine stop however creates a problem concerning the vehicle's climate control system. Because the conventional climate control system incorporates a compressor driven by engine belt, there is almost no cooling performance while the engine is stopped. Until now, when a driver needed more cooling comfort the engine has been switched back on as a compromise measure. To realize cabin comfort that is consistent with fuel saving, a 2-way driven compressor has been developed that can be driven both by engine belt while the engine is running and by electric motor when the engine is stopped.
Technical Paper

20 A Combined Experimental and Numerical Approach for Motorcycle Crank Noise: Experimental Validation

2002-10-29
2002-32-1789
The demands for comfort and a cleaner environment have been increasing for the past years for motorcycle as well as car manufacturers. With the need to decrease the time-to-market, there is a clear drive to apply CAE-based methods in order to evaluate new designs and to propose design changes that solve any identified problems. More specifically, the demands on the comfort of the rider are not only related to ride & handling and vibration levels(1), but also to the noise levels generated by the motorcycle. This paper presents the virtual modeling of one-cylinder engine of a motorcycle that identifies the mechanism behind the generation of an annoying noise. Furthermore, different possible design changes were evaluated in order to solve the problem. A combined experimental and numerical approach was followed to achieve this. Experiments were used to identify important parameters that determine the engine behavior and thus are critical for the modeling of such an engine.
Technical Paper

2002 Joint EPA/SAE-ESSC Workshop Environmental Systems Decision Making

2003-03-03
2003-01-0548
This is a report of a workshop held in mid-August of 2002 at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to explore what it takes to make a decision regarding environmental systems in the US. The participants in the workshop represented federal government, industry, non-governmental organizations and academia. During the two and a half day workshop, discussions were held on the policy drivers, the strategies and tactics (through a SWOT analysis), the decisions the automotive industry is facing today and the tools available to support decision making.
Technical Paper

210 Ft Medium Endurance Cutters

1966-02-01
660466
The U. S. Coast Guard has recently put into service new 210 ft cutters designed for search and rescue work, law enforcement, oceanographic work, and possible future ASW. This paper outlines the structure and capabilities of the vessel. An important feature of the cutter is its helicopter handling facilities, which have greatly increased the cutter's search and rescue capability by extending the area it can cover. The cutter is the first in Coast Guard service to be powered by a combination diesel engine and gas turbine installation. The combination gives a top speed of 18 knots and a cruising range of 5000 miles.
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