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Technical Paper

3.5 hp in an 8 lb Package

A new lightweight gasoline, two-cycle engine for portable tools is described. The total weight of 8 lb with an output of 3.5 hp was achieved by means of compact design with the use of standardized parts wherever possible, rather than by creating all new parts.
Journal Article

3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems

The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted.
Technical Paper

3D Automotive Millimeter-Wave Radar with Two-Dimensional Electronic Scanning

The radar-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) can reduce accidents, so as to make vehicles, drivers and pedestrians safer. For active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable role in the automotive environmental sensing system since it can work effectively regardless of the bad weather while the camera fails. One crucial task of the automotive radar is to detect and distinguish some objects close to each other precisely with the increasingly complex of the road condition. Nowadays almost all the automotive radar products work in bidimensional area where just the range and azimuth can be measured. However, sometimes in their field of view it is not easy for them to differentiate some objects, like the car, the manhole covers and the guide board, when they align with each other in vertical direction.
Technical Paper

77 GHz Radar Based Multi-Target Tracking Algorithm on Expressway Condition

Multi-Target tracking is a central aspect of modeling the surrounding environment of autonomous vehicles. Automotive millimeter-wave radar is a necessary component in the autonomous driving system. One of the biggest advantages of radar is it measures the velocity directly. Another big advantage is that the radar is less influenced by environmental conditions. It can work day and night, in rainy or snowy conditions. In the expressway scenario, the forward-looking radar can generate multiple objects, to properly track the leading vehicle or neighbor-lane vehicle, a multi-target tracking algorithm is required. How to associate the track and the measurement or data association is an important question in a multi-target tracking system. This paper applies the nearest-neighbor method to solve the data association problem and uses an extended Kalman filter to update the state of the track.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Applying a Product Line Approach for Car Periphery Supervision Systems

Car Periphery Supervision (CPS) systems comprise a family of automotive systems that are based on sensors installed around the vehicle to monitor its environment. The measurement and evaluation of sensor data enables the realization of several kinds of higher level applications such as parking assistance or blind spot detection. Although a lot of similarity can be identified among CPS applications, these systems are traditionally built separately. Usually, each single system is built with its own electronic control unit, and it is likely that the application software is bound to the controller's hardware. Current systems engineering therefore often leads to a large number of inflexible, dedicated systems in the automobile that together consume a large amount of power, weight, and installation space and produce high manufacturing and maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

A Collision Avoidance Strategy Based on Inevitable Collision State

This paper proposed a collision avoidance strategy that take over the control of ego vehicle when faced with urgent collision risk. To improve the applicability of collision avoidance strategy in complex scenarios, the theory of ICS (Inevitable Collision State) is introduced to evaluate the collision risk and compute the trigger flag of the system, and vehicle dynamic is taken into account when modeling ego vehicle to predict ego vehicle’s following moving. Vehicle specific characteristics including reaction time of the braking system and the braking force increasing process are taken into account. In order to reduce injury caused by collision accidents and minimize disruption to drivers, slight steering is added on top of emergency braking. The direction of the steering angle is determined according to IM (Imitating Maneuvers) The flow chart of the strategy is presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on ROS2 Middleware - Performance Aspects within ADAS Simulation Platforms

An autonomous vehicle is able to perceive and interpret exactly its surroundings and its interior (“Sensing”). then, it processes the information received and plan its driving strategy (“processing”). And finally, it uses its powertrain, steering and braking power to move its wheels in such a way that the planned driving strategy is put into practice (“Acting”). Testing an autonomous vehicle’s reaction to the erratic traffic scenarios using prototypes would be impractical. Physically testing these scenarios can also be risky to human life and equipment. Additionally, the repetition involved in the comprehensive testing of all these scenarios could lead to human errors. Various Self Driving car manufacturers have reported injuries and causalities while doing Functional testing [1].
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Various Methodologies and Solutions for Evaluation of Short-Range Radar to Validate the Features of Autonomous Vehicle

Autonomous vehicle is a vehicle capable of sensing its environment and taking decisions automatically with no human interventions. To achieve this goal, ADAS (Advance Driving Assistance System) technologies play an important role and the technologies are improving and emerging. The sensing of environment can be achieved with the help of sensors like Radar and Camera. Radar sensors are used in detecting the range, speed and directions of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithms. Radar with long range and short range are widely used in the autonomous vehicles. Radar sensors with long range can be used to realize features like Adaptive Cruise Control, Advance Emergency Brake Assist. The short-range radar sensors are used for Blind Spot Monitoring, Lane Change Assist, Rear/Front Cross Traffic Alert and Occupant Safe Exit. To realize the Autonomous vehicle functionalities four short range radar sensors are required, two on front and two on rear (left and right).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Physical Layer Devices for Class B and Class C Multiplex Systems. (Using Recommended Practice SAE J1699 for Testing Physical Layer Devices.)

The objective of this paper is to suggest the advantages of using SAE J1699 tests and methods as a basis for characterization of physical layer devices. This paper will examine some of the commercially available physical layer IC's that could be used to drive Class B and C multiplex networks. Device characteristics such as propagation delays, current consumption, and common mode will be presented. These characteristics could be used to test device performance in Class B and Class C multiplex applications. Also presented will be an introduction to the new SAE J1699 Recommended Practice for multiplex device testing and how J1699 might be used for physical layer device testing.
Technical Paper

A Concise Camera-Radar Fusion Framework for Object Detection and Data Association

Multi-sensor fusion strategies have gradually become a consensus in autonomous driving research. Among them, radar-camera fusion has attracted wide attention for its improvement on the dimension and accuracy of perception at a lower cost, however, the processing and association of radar and camera data has become an obstacle to related research. Our approach is to build a concise framework for camera and radar detection and data association: for visual object detection, the state-of-the-art YOLOv5 algorithm is further improved and works as the image detector, and before the fusion process, the raw radar reflection data is projected onto image plane and hierarchically clustered, then the projected radar echoes and image detection results are matched based on the Hungarian algorithm. Thus, the category of objects and their corresponding distance and speed information can be obtained, providing reliable input for subsequent object tracking task.
Technical Paper

A Context Aware Automatic Image Enhancement Method Using Color Transfer

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrades image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

A Data-Driven Radar Object Detection and Clustering Method Aided by Camera

The majority of road accidents are caused by human oversight. Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) has the potential to reduce human error and improve road safety. With the rising demand for safety and comfortable driving experience, ADAS functions have become an important feature when car manufacturers developing new models. ADAS requires high accuracy and robustness in the perception system. Camera and radar are often combined to create a fusion result because the sensors have their own advantages and drawbacks. Cameras are susceptible to bad weather and poor lighting condition and radar has low resolution and can be affected by metal debris on the road. Clustering radar targets into objects and determine whether radar targets are valid objects are challenging tasks. In the literature, rule-based and thresholding methods have been proposed to filter out stationary objects and objects with low reflection power.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

A Digital Forensic Method to Detect Object based Video Forgery Security Attacks on Surround View ADAS Camera System

The present and futuristic surround view camera systems provide the bird-eye’s view of the driving environment to the driver through a real-time video feed in the digital cockpit infotainment display, which assists the driver in maneuvering, parking, lane changing by performing object detection, object tracking, maneuver estimation, blind spot detection, lane detection, etc., The functional safety of this surround view camera system is gets compromised, if it fails to alert the driver, when truly obstacles are present in the nearby driving environment of the vehicle, or if it alerts the driver when no obstacles are present in the nearby driving environment. This malfunctioning of surround view driver assistance system is due to integrity compromisation through cyberattacks, where attackers forge the displayed video data on the infotainment system, which has external world connectivity.
Technical Paper

A Driver Assistance System for Improving Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy

Commercial vehicle operators and governments around the world are looking for ways to cut down on fuel consumption for economic and environmental reasons. Two main factors affecting the fuel consumption of a vehicle are the drive route and the driver behavior. The drive route can be specified by information such as speed limit, road grade, road curvature, traffic etc. The driver behavior, on the other hand, is difficult to classify and can be responsible for as much as 35% variation in fuel consumption. In this work, nearly 600,000 miles of drive data is utilized to identify driving behaviors that significantly affect fuel consumption. Based on this analysis, driving scenarios and related driver behaviors are identified that result in the most efficient vehicle operation. A driver assistance system is presented in this paper that assists the driver in driving more efficiently by issuing scenario specific advice.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator HMI Study Comparing a Steering Wheel Mounted Display to HUD, Instrument Panel and Center Stack Displays for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems and Warnings

Simple, effective, and appropriately placed visual information must be available to the driver as part of a well designed Human Machine Interface (HMI). Visual interfaces for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), secondary task control, and safety warnings should attempt to minimize both driver reaction time to warnings and the workload on the driver to comprehend a warning or respond to driving advice or information. A driving simulator study was designed and executed to assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of three display concepts. The study directly compared the driver warning reaction and overall workload for three visual HMIs: the conventional instrument panel and center-stack displays (IP/CS), an idealized heads up display (HUD), and the Communication Steering Wheel (CSW) display. Study participants were required to respond to secondary convenience control tasks (4 tasks); safety warnings (3 scenarios); and also a peripheral detection task (PDT).
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Study of Young Driver’s Behavior under Angry Emotion

The driving behaviors of young drivers under the influence of anger are analyzed by driving simulator in this paper. A total of 12 subjects are enrolled during the experiment. Standardized videos are utilized to induce the driver's anger emotion. And the driver's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is collected synchronously and compared before and after emotional trigger, which prove the validity of emotional trigger. Based on the result, the driver's driving performance under the straight road and the curve under normal state and angry state are compared and analyzed. The results of independent sample t-test show that there are significant differences in the running time of straight sections and the standard deviation of steering wheel angle in curves between normal and angry states. In conclusion, the longitudinal and lateral operation of drivers is unstable in angry state and the driver will be more destructive to the regular driving behavior.
Technical Paper

A Fleet Operator's Comments on FMVSS 121 Braking System Compatibility

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 121 has introduced many new and varied problems for vehicle manufacturers, component manufacturers, and vehicle operators. An area of great concern to vehicle operators, particularly fleets, is the question of compatibility associated with antilock system intermix, old and new vehicle intermix, and control standardization. This paper discusses the compatibility related problems observed during limited fleet tests and evaluation of FMVSS 121 braking systems. Test data, observations, and possible solutions are presented with emphasis on the need for more extensive investigation in this area to ensure that the goal of FMVSS 121-increased truck safety-is achieved.